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General Aviation Safety
On February 16, 2005, about 0913 mountain standard time,1 a Cessna Citation 560, N500AT, operated by Martinair, Inc., for Circuit City Stores, Inc.,2 crashed about 4 nautical miles east of Pueblo Memorial Airport (PUB), Pueblo, Colorado, while on an instrument landing system (ILS) approach to runway 26R. The two pilots and six passengers on board were killed, and the airplane was destroyed by impact forces and postcrash fire. The flight was operating under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 91 on an instrument flight rules flight plan. Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) prevailed at the time of the accident.
TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require that operational training in the Cessna 560 airplane emphasize the airplane flight manual requirements that pilots increase the airspeed and operate the deice boots during approaches when ice is present on the wings.
Original recommendation transmittal letter:
Closed - Acceptable Action
Pueblo, CO, United States
Crash During Approach to Landing, Circuit City Stores, Inc., Cessna Citation 560, N500AT
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status:
FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
General Aviation, Icing, Training and Education, Weather
Safety Recommendation History
The FAA revised the Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test Standard (PTS) for Airplane and the Instrument Rating PTS for Airplane, Helicopter, and Powered Lift to address the AFM requirements that pilots increase the airspeed and operate the deice boots during approaches when ice is present on the wings. The FAA also issued an Information for Operators message that recommends that the responsible personnel of organizations covered by 14 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 61, 91, 91(Subpart K), 121, 135, 141, and/or 142 modify training and checking programs for flight crews to ensure that the crews are aware of the need to increase the airspeed and operate the deice boots during approaches when ice is present on the wings. These actions satisfy Safety Recommendation A-07-12, which is classified CLOSED – ACCEPTABLE ACTION.
CC# 201100085: - From J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator: In the Federal Aviation Administration's letter dated May 17,2007, we indicated that we would effect changes to two practical test standards (PTS), placing emphasis on knowledge of the hazards of flight in icing conditions in all phases of flight. We also indicated that we would notify inspectors in reference to amending ground and simulator curricula for those operators utilizing the Cessna Citation CE-560. Our original intention was to complete this second action through a notice, but we chose to release an Information for Operators (InFO) while we updated the second PTS. The current edition of the Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating PTS for Airplane (FAA-S-8081-5F) (enclosure 1) became effective July 2008. This PTS was updated to include icing special emphasis areas (page 8 of enclosure 1) and icing performance and limitation objectives (page 1-3 of enclosure 1), Additionally, the current edition of the Instrument Rating PTS for Airplane, Helicopter, and Powered Lift (FAA-S-8081-4E) (enclosure 2) became effective January 2010, This PTS was updated to include icing special emphasis areas (page 7 of enclosure 2) and icing cross-country flight planning objectives (page 1-2 of enclosure 2). Both PTS address wing contamination due to airframe icing in all phases of flight. On May 5, 2009, the FAA introduced the requirements of these PTS, specific to the Cessna Citation CE-560, when we issued InfO 09007 (enclosure 3). The purpose of this InFO was to ensure that all pilots of pneumatic deicing boot-equipped airplanes understand and receive training on proper operation of those systems and on maintaining an appropriate airspeed in icing conditions. This InFO recommends that responsible personnel of parts 61, 91, 91K, 121, 135, 141, and/or 142 do the following: • Modify training and checking programs as necessary to reflect the airplane's operating limitations and operator's procedures for flight in icing conditions, as well as information provided in this InFO. If icing airworthiness directive procedures are applicable, modify training to reflect them. • Modify training and checking programs to ensure that they include training on ice accumulation, shedding, and ice-bridge formation per the current edition of Advisory Circular 91-74, Pilot Guide: Flight in Icing Conditions. • Modify training and checking programs to ensure that they include emphasis on maintaining and monitoring the appropriate airspeed in icing conditions. • Modify training and checking programs to ensure that there is special emphasis training on operation of the pneumatic deicing boots in accordance with the airplane flight manual or FAA approved operator's manual. • Modify training and checking programs to teach and emphasize monitoring skills and workload management (Crew Resource Management/Safety Risk Management skills) during operations in icing conditions. I believe that the FAA has effectively addressed this safety recommendation, and I consider our actions complete.
The FAA informed the Safety Board that it will initiate action to change the Instrument Airplane and Airline Transport Pilot/Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test Standards (PTS) to place emphasis on knowledge of the hazards of in-flight icing. The FAA will also issue a notice to inspectors requiring them to advise all Part 135 operators, Part 91 Subpart K Program Managers, Part 141 Pilot Schools, and Part 142 Training Centers to require Cessna C-560 operators to amend their ground and simulator curriculum (1) to emphasize the importance of the proper operation of pneumatic boots and (2) to stress the importance of increasing approach speed as directed in the airplane flight manual (AFM) when residual ice is present or can be expected during approach and landing. The notice will direct inspectors to require examiners to test pilots’ knowledge of C-560 operating procedures in icing conditions in both initial and recurrent training and to require demonstration of this knowledge during practical tests and/or proficiency checks. Pending revision of the PTS and issuance of the notice, Safety Recommendation A-07-12 is classified OPEN -- ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.
Letter Mail Controlled 5/31/2007 8:48:32 AM MC# 2070240: - From Marion C. Blakey, Administrator: The Federal Aviation Administration agrees with the Board and is proposing the following to respond to this recommendation. Short Term Actions The FAA will complete the following actions within the next 12 months: ·Initiate an expedited request for changes to the Instrument Airplane and Airline Transport Pilot/Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test Standards (PTS) to place emphasis on knowledge of the hazards of flight in icing conditions in all phases of flight; and ·Issue a Notice to inspectors requiring them to advise all part 135 Principle Operations inspectors, part 91 K Program Managers, part 141 Pilot Schools, and part 142 Training Centers requiring Cessna Citation CE-560 operators to amend their ground and simulator curriculum to reflect the criticality of the proper operation of pneumatic boots (as stated in Advisory Circular (AC) 91-74) and stress the importance of increasing approach speed (Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) increasing approach speed (AFM increases to Vapp & Vref ) when residual ice is present or can be expected during the approach and landing. -The Notice will have inspectors require examiners to test pilots knowledge of CE-560 operating procedures in icing conditions in both initial and recurrent training and require demonstration of this knowledge during practical tests and/or proficiency checks; and -The Notice will have inspectors require flight examiners to stress the critical importance of adherence to the disciplines of crew resource management (CRM) while operating in the heavy workload environments such as in-flight icing. Additional action under consideration: ·Consider revising the Cessna Citation 560 AFM procedures regarding the activation of the airframe ice protection system.
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