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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-10-088
Details
Synopsis: On January 15, 2009, about 1527 eastern standard time,1 US Airways flight 1549, an Airbus Industrie A320-214, N106US, experienced an almost total loss of thrust in both engines after encountering a flock of birds and was subsequently ditched on the Hudson River about 8.5 miles from LaGuardia Airport (LGA), New York City, New York. The flight was en route to Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT), Charlotte, North Carolina, and had departed LGA about 2 minutes before the in-flight event occurred. The 150 passengers, including a lap-held child, and 5 crewmembers evacuated the airplane via the forward and overwing exits. One flight attendant and four passengers received serious injuries, and the airplane was substantially damaged. The scheduled, domestic passenger flight was operating under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121 on an instrument flight rules flight plan. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident.
Recommendation: TO THE EUROPEAN AVIATION SAFETY AGENCY: Modify the small and medium flocking bird certification test standard in Joint Aviation Regulations Engines to require that the test be conducted using the lowest expected fan speed, instead of 100-percent fan speed, for the minimum climb rate.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Alternate Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: Weehawken, NJ, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA09MA026
Accident Reports: Loss of Thrust in Both Engines, US Airways Flight 1549 Airbus Industrie A320-214, N106US
Report #: AAR-10-03
Accident Date: 1/15/2009
Issue Date: 5/21/2010
Date Closed: 5/13/2019
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: European Aviation Safety Agency (Closed - Acceptable Alternate Action)
Keyword(s): Engine,Wildlife

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: European Aviation Safety Agency
Date: 5/13/2019
Response: We issued Safety Recommendation A-10-64 to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommending that it take similar action. As an alternative to the specific test requirement called for in Safety Recommendations A-10-64 and -88, the FAA’s engine harmonization working group recommended an additional test specification that turbine engines be required to continue to operate following ingestion of a medium-sized bird into the engine core with a fan speed that is representative of the climb condition (the lowest expected available climb thrust setting for the engine installation). We considered this an acceptable alternative solution from the FAA. We note that, on December 14, 2018, you published “Certification Specification for Engines Amendment 5” in Executive Director Decision 2018/014/R, which included a new test specification requiring that applicants demonstrate the ability of the engine to cope with ingesting a medium flocking bird into the engine core when either the mechanical rotor speed of the first exposed stage (or stages), on a standard day, would produce the lowest expected power or thrust required during a climb through 3,000 ft above ground level or, if no bird material is ingested into the engine core under those conditions, the mechanical rotor speed of the first exposed stage (or stages) is consistent with a minimum approach idle setting, on a standard day, at 3,000 ft above ground level. We believe that this additional test specification constitutes an acceptable alternative solution that addresses our recommendation. Accordingly, Safety Recommendation A-10-88 is classified CLOSED--ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATE ACTION.

From: European Aviation Safety Agency
To: NTSB
Date: 2/4/2019
Response: -From Erick Ferrandez, Head of Safety Intelligence and Performance Department: The European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) initiated rulemaking task RMT.0671 'Engine Bird Ingestion' on 30 May 2017 with the publication of its terms of reference. EASA published Notice of Proposed Amendment (NPA) 2017-16 for consultation on 2 October 2017. The NPA proposal has taken into account this accident and the related safety recommendations, as well as the FAA Engine Harmonization Working Group (EHWG) report 'Turbofan Bird Ingestion Regulation' of 19 February 2015. The EHWG was formed after the FAA tasked the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) to address the NTSB safety recommendations from this accident. EASA actively participated in this working group. As a result of the RMT, on 14 December 2018, EASA published Executive Director (ED) Decision 2018/014/R amending the Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) for Engines (CS-E Amendment 5). CS-E 800 'Bird Strike and Ingestion' and AMC E 800 are amended to add a new test specification for turbofan engines. These specify that the applicant demonstrates the ability of the engine to cope with the ingestion of a medium flocking bird (MFB) into the engine core under defined engine conditions. These engine conditions are either: - the mechanical rotor speed of the first exposed stage or stages that, on a standard day, would produce the lowest expected power or thrust required during a climb through 3 000 ft above ground level; or - if no bird material is ingested into the engine core using the above conditions, the mechanical. rotor speed of the first exposed stage or stages that is consistent with a minimum approach idle setting, on a standard day, at 3 000 ft above ground level. However, no change is made to the maximum take-off thrust specifications for other aspects of the medium and small birds' ingestion tests provisions since this test focuses on fan blade integrity.

From: NTSB
To: European Aviation Safety Agency
Date: 1/25/2018
Response: We issued Safety Recommendation A-10-64 to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommending that it take similar action for Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) section 33.76(c), the FAA standard addressing the same issue. In response, the FAA’s Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee created an engine harmonization working group (EHWG) in which you actively participated. On February 19, 2015, the EHWG issued a “Turbofan Bird Ingestion Regulation,” and, as an alternative to the specific test requirement called for in Safety Recommendations A 10 64 and -88, the group recommended an additional test specification that turbine engines be required to continue to operate following ingestion of a medium-sized bird into the engine core with a fan speed that is representative of the climb condition (the lowest expected available climb thrust setting for the engine installation). We previously told the FAA that this was an acceptable alternative that satisfied Safety Recommendation A-10-64. We note that, on May 30, 2017, you published the terms of reference for rulemaking task RMT.0671 to address Safety Recommendation A-10-88. We further note that, on October 2, 2017, you published Notice of Proposed Amendment (NPA) 2017-16, which addresses the EHWG’s recommendations. The NPA proposes amending the medium flocking bird ingestion demonstration provisions in the Certification Specification for Engines (CS-E) to include the additional test specification discussed above. Pending amendment of the CS E based on NPA 2017-16, Safety Recommendation A-10-88 is classified OPEN--ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATE RESPONSE.

From: European Aviation Safety Agency
To: NTSB
Date: 11/17/2017
Response: -From Rachel Daeschler, Deputy Strategy and Safety Management Director and Head of Safety Intelligence and Performance Department: Rulemaking task RMT.0671 started on 30 May 2017 with the publication of its terms of reference. The Agency published the Notice of Proposed Amendment (NPA) NPA 2017-16 for consultation on 2 October 2017. The NPA proposal has taken into account this accident and the related safety recommendations, as well as the Engine Harmonization Working Group (EHWG) report 'Turbofan Bird Ingestion Regulation' of 19 February 2015. The EHWG was formed after the FAA tasked the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) to address the NTSB safety recommendations from this accident. EASA actively participated in this working group. The NPA proposes to amend the medium flocking bird ingestion demonstration provisions in Certification Specification for Engines (CS-E) to include an additional test specification for turbine engines to be required to continue to operate following the ingestion of a medium-sized bird into the engine core with a fan speed that is representative of the climb condition (i.e. the lowest expected available climb thrust setting for the engine installation). However, no change is proposed to the maximum take-off thrust requirement for other aspects of the medium flocking bird provisions since this requirement is far more stringent for the fan blades. The final EASA decision to amend CS-E is planned for second quarter of 2018.

From: NTSB
To: European Aviation Safety Agency
Date: 7/9/2013
Response: We are encouraged by EASA’s planned participation in the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee that the Aerospace Industries Association recommended be created to revise and strengthen the core bird ingestion requirements of EASA and the Federal Aviation Administration. Pending completion of the recommended actions, Safety Recommendations A 10-88 and -89 are classified OPEN—ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.

From: European Aviation Safety Agency
To: NTSB
Date: 4/11/2013
Response: -From John Vincent, Deputy Director for Strategic Safety: After this accident, a committee was created under the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) to review engine bird ingestion experience in commercial aviation and to evaluate current certification specifications for engine bird ingestion. This committee included representatives from EASA and FAA. The AlA final report dated 16 November 2012 has been reviewed by the Agency. Status: The current CS-E 800 medium flocking birds test specification ensure robustness and tolerance of the engine fan blades during the critical take-off phase of flight. However, the Agency agrees with the AlA committee recommendation to investigate rulemaking solutions to upgrade the core ingestion elements of the small and medium bird test requirements, to make future engine designs more tolerant to this threat. The AlA recommended to create an Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) group to follow on this recommendation. The Agency will seek participation to this group and will consider further rulemaking activity if applicable.