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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-81-111
Details
Synopsis: ON JUNE 19, 1980, A MCDONNELL DOUGLAS DC-9-80, N1002G, SKIDDED OFF THE RIGHT SIDE OF RUNWAY 21R WHILE ATTEMPTING A SIMULATED HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS INOPERATIVE LANDING AT THE YUMA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, YUMA, ARIZONA. THE AIRCRAFT CAME TO REST ABOUT 6,700 FEET BEYOND THE LANDING THRESHOLD OF THE RUNWAY. THE AIRCRAFT WAS DAMAGED SUBSTANTIALLY; HOWEVER, THE THREE FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS WERE NOT INJURED. THERE WERE NO PASSENGERS. THE PURPOSE OF THE FLIGHT WAS TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THE AIRCRAFT COULD BE FLOWN AND LANDED SAFELY WITH A COMPLETE FAILURE OF ITS HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS TO DEMONSTRATE COMPLIANCE WITH A SPECIAL CONDITION TO THE PROVISIONS OF 14 CFR 25. (FOR MORE INFORMATION READ NTSB-AAR-81-16.)
Recommendation: THE NTSB RECOMMENDS THAT THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: EXAMINE ALL AIRCRAFT MODELS WITH AFT POD-MOUNTED ENGINE/THRUST REVERSERS TO DETERMINE IF VERTICAL STABLIZER AND RUDDER EFFECTIVENESS IS LOST OR REDUCED WHEN REVERSE THRUST IS USED DURING LANDING ROLLOUT. IF THIS ADVERSE CHARACTERISTIC OCCURS, REVISE LANDING PROCEDURES, APPROPRIATE MANUALS, AND TRAINING MATERIALS AS NECESSARY TO ASSURE THAT MAXIMUM DIRECTIONAL CONTROL IS MAINTAINED DURING THE LANDING ROLLOUT.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: Yuma, AZ, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: LAX80FA111
Accident Reports: McDonnell Douglas Corporation, DC-9-80, N1002G
Report #: AAR-81-16
Accident Date: 6/19/1980
Issue Date: 9/15/1981
Date Closed: 3/19/1985
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 3/19/1985
Response: We are informed that only the B-727 with its aft-mounted engine/thrust reverser has loss of rudder effectiveness when reverse thrust is applied which reduces tracking ability on wet runways. We agree that the problem of avoiding loss of directional control is discussed adequately in the Boeing 727 Airplane Operations Manual, the Crew Training Manual, and other documents; therefore, we have classified this recommendation as "Closed--Acceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 11/2/1984
Response: FAA LTR: "OUR REEXAMINATION OF THE CERTIFICATION DATA AND SERVICE HISTORIES OF TRANSPORT AIRPLANES WITH AFT MOUNTED ENGINES INDICATE THAT ONLY THE BOEING 727 HAD A SIGNIFICANT PROBLEM. THE PROBLEM INVOLVED REDUCED TRACKING ABILITY ON WET RUNWAYS DURING REVERSE THRUST OPERATIONS. THE BOEING 727 AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL AND CREW TRAINING MANUAL AND THE JULY/AUGUST 1969 ISSUE OF BOEING'S AIRLINER MAGAZINE ARTICLE ENTITLED "LANDING THE 727 ON SLIPPERY RUNWAYS" ADEQUATELY ADDRESS THE PROBLEM AND PROVIDE INFORMATION ON HOW TO AVOID IT. THE PROCEDURES CONTAINED IN THE MANUALS STATE "...WHEN LANDING ON SLIPPERY RUNWAYS IN A CROSSWIND, OBSERVE A 1.75 ENGINE PRESSURE RATIO REVERSE THRUST LIMIT. AT LOWER POWER ON THE POD ENGINES, THE DISTURBED AIRFLOW OVER THE VERTICAL TAIL IS REDUCED AND RUDDER EFFECTIVENESS IS IMPROVED. AN ALTERNATE PROCEDURE IS TO USE NORMAL REVERSE THRUST ON THE CENTER ENGINE AND IDLE REVERSE ON THE POD ENGINES INITIALLY, THEN GRADUALLY INCREASE THE LEVEL OF REVERSE THRUST ON THE POD ENGINES. THESE MANUALS HAVE FAA CONCURRENCE AND ARE EITHER USED DIRECTLY AS OPERATORS' OWN MANUALS OR FORM THE BASIS FOR OPERATORS' CUSTOMIZED MANUALS. INCLUSION OF SIMILAR INFORMATION IN THE AFM IS REDUNDANT AND WOULD NOT OFFER SIGNIFICANTLY MORE VISIBILITY ON THE SUBJECT."

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 5/29/1984
Response: Your letter contained only information on the DC-9 aircraft models but did not include information as to whether other aircraft models with aft pod-mounted engine/thrust reversers, such as the Boeing B-727 or the British Aircraft Corporation's BAC-111, have had their Airplane Flight Manuals or training materials updated to contain information on loss of rudder effectiveness with increased reverse thrust. Pending this information, Safety Recommendation A-81-111 will remain classified "Open--Unacceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 1/26/1984
Response: FAA LETTER: ENCLOSED FOR THE BOARD'S INFORMATION AND FILE ARE COPIES OF THE APPROPRIATE PAGES OF THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION'S (FAA) APPROVED AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL (AFM) FOR THE MCDONNELL DOUGLAS DC-9-50 AND -80 AIRPLANES. THIS AMENDMENT TO THE AFM ESTABLISHES PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING ABNORMAL HYDRAULICS-OUT LANDINGS.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 5/12/1983
Response: Your reexamination of certification data and the service histories of all airplanes with aft pod-mounted engine/thrust reversers, and your reported findings concerning Data Source: NTSB Recommendations to FAA and FAA Responses the operational problems relative to the Boeing B-727 reinforces our concern that appropriate information is needed in approved Airplane Flight Manuals where rudder effectiveness is reduced during reverse thrust operations. With regard to the B- 727, we believe this information should be included in the FAA-approved Airplane Flight Manual, similar in form to the information in Appendix D to your letter of July 12, 1982. Therefore, we have classified A-81-111 as "Open--Unacceptable Action" and request that you reconsider the recommendation to include appropriate changes to the approved B-727 Airplane Flight Manual similar to the proposed changes outlined in Appendix D of your response letter of July 12.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 7/12/1982
Response: FAA LETTER: OUR RE-EXAMINATION OF CERTIFICATION DATA AND SERVICE HISTORIES OF TRANSPORT AIRPLANES WITH AFT MOUNTED ENGINES SHOWED THAT ONLY ONE, THE B-727, HAD SIGNIFICANT PROBLEMS. DURING ITS EARLY HISTORY, THE AIRPLANE EXPERIENCED SEVERAL INSTANCES OF REDUCED TRACKING ABILITY ON WET RUNWAYS DURING REVERSE THRUST OPERATIONS. IN ITS JULY/ AUGUST 1969 AIRLINER PUBLICATION, THE COMPANY DESCRIBED THE PROBLEM AND PROVIDED DETAILED GUIDELINES FOR CREW USE TO COPE WITH THE PROBLEM. THE CARRIERS ADAPTED THE BOEING PROCEDURES TO FIT THEIR PARTICULAR OPERATIONS AND HAVE EFFECTIVELY ALLEVIATED THE PROBLEMS.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 7/8/1982
Response: Your action to reexamine the certification data and service history of all aircraft models with aft pod-mounted engine/thrust reversers is in full accord with this recommendation, which is classified as "Open--Acceptable Action." Please inform us of the findings of your reexamination efforts.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 12/30/1981
Response: FAA LTR: THE FAA CONCURS IN THIS RECOMMENDATION AND WILL REEXAMINE THE CERTIFICATION DATA AND SERVICE HISTORY OF ALL AIRCRAFT MODELS WITH AFT POD-MOUNTED ENGINE AND THRUST REVERSERS TO DETERMINE IF A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN RUDDER EFFECTIVENESS OR ADVERSE YAW CHARACTERISTICS OCCUR DURING LANDING ROLLOUT WHEN REVERSE THRUST IS USED. IF AN AIRCRAFT MODEL OF THIS TYPE IS FOUND, APPROPRIATE CORRECTIVE ACTION, INCLUDING PROCEDURES AND TRAINING, WILL BE MADE.