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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-81-123
Details
Synopsis: ON JUNE 19, 1980, A MCDONNELL DOUGLAS DC-9-80, N1002G, SKIDDED OFF THE RIGHT SIDE OF RUNWAY 21R WHILE ATTEMPTING A SIMULATED HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS INOPERATIVE LANDING AT THE YUMA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, YUMA, ARIZONA. THE AIRCRAFT CAME TO REST ABOUT 6,700 FEET BEYOND THE LANDING THRESHOLD OF THE RUNWAY. THE AIRCRAFT WAS DAMAGED SUBSTANTIALLY; HOWEVER, THE THREE FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS WERE NOT INJURED. THERE WERE NO PASSENGERS. THE PURPOSE OF THE FLIGHT WAS TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THE AIRCRAFT COULD BE FLOWN AND LANDED SAFELY WITH A COMPLETE FAILURE OF ITS HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS TO DEMONSTRATE COMPLIANCE WITH A SPECIAL CONDITION TO THE PROVISIONS OF 14 CFR 25. (FOR MORE INFORMATION READ NTSB-AAR-81-16.)
Recommendation: THE NTSB RECOMMENDS THAT THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: ENSURE THAT AIR CARRIER TRAINING AND PROFICIENCY CHECK PROGRAMS REQUIRED BY 14 CFR 121 INCLUDE A DEMONSTRATION OF DIRECTIONAL CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS DURING LANDING ROLLOUT WHEN CONDUCTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TRAINING AND CHECKING PERMITTED USING A PHASE I, II, OR III SIMULATOR AS PROVIDED FOR IN 14 CFR 121, APPENDIX H.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: Yuma, AZ, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: LAX80FA111
Accident Reports: McDonnell Douglas Corporation, DC-9-80, N1002G
Report #: AAR-81-16
Accident Date: 6/19/1980
Issue Date: 9/15/1981
Date Closed: 5/18/1987
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 5/18/1987
Response: We are pleased to note that the procedures for the use of reverse thrust are now included in the FAA approved flight manual and in FAA approved DC-9 training programs. We also note that the FAA's proposed changes to Advisory Circular (AC) 120-40A, "Airplane Simulator and Visual System Evaluation," will include stability and control characteristics relative to reduction of rudder effectiveness with increased reverse thrust in rear pod-mounted engines. These actions satisfy the intent of Safety Recommendation A-81-123 which is now classified as "Closed-- Acceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 3/25/1987
Response: IN A MEMORANDUM DATED JUNE 14, 1983, THE CHAIRMAN OF THE DC-9 FLIGHT STANDARDIZATION BOARD (FSB) ADVISED REGIONAL FLIGHT STANDARDS DIVISION MANAGERS THAT THE FSB WAS IN AGREEMENT WITH THIS SAFETY RECOMMENDATION, AND STATED THAT ALL DC-9 TRAINING PROGRAMS SHOULD BE REVISED TO ENSURE THAT THEY COVER THE AMENDED PROCEDURES FOR USE OF REVERSE THRUST AS CONTAINED IN THE APPROVED FLIGHT MANUAL. THE FAA REGIONAL OFFICES WERE ASKED TO HAVE THE CONCERNED PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS INSPECTORS INCLUDE THIS REQUIREMENT IN ALL FAA APPROVED PART 121 TRAINING PROGRAMS. CURRENTLY, AC 120-40A, AIRPLANE SIMULATOR AND VISUAL SYSTEM EVALUATION, IS BEING REVISED BY THE FAA'S NATIONAL SIMULATOR EVALUATION TEAM AND WILL INCORPORATE A REVERSE THRUST OBJECTIVE TEST FOR ADVANCED SIMULATORS.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 2/2/1987
Response: The FAA's last letter on this subject, dated January 26, 1984, indicated that efforts were being made to comply with the intent of these recommendations. In our evaluation of the FAA's letter, we stated that while the FAA's planned actions were acceptable, we believed that all of the necessary data were available and that the FAA should expedite its actions. The subject recommendations were all classified as "Open--Acceptable Action," in our letter of May 29, 1984. The Safety Board now notes that two more years have passed without any further response from the FAA. More importantly, the Safety Board is unaware of any further action being taken to correct the safety issue involved. Therefore, the Safety Board has now classified Safety Recommendations A-81-106, A-81-109, A-81-122, and A-81-123 as "Open-- Unacceptable Action," and requests that you inform the Board of the actions now being taken to comply with these recommendations.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 1/26/1984
Response: FAA LETTER: THE FAA'S NATIONAL SIMULATOR EVALUATION TEAM UNDERTOOK AN INDEPTH EVALUATION OF THE DC-9 AND B-727 TRAINING SIMULATORS OF WHICH ONLY ADVANCED SIMULATORS WERE CONSIDERED. THE RESULTS OF THE SIMULATOR TEAM EVALUATION CAN BE CATEGORIZED INTO THREE MAJOR FINDINGS AS FOLLOWS: (1) NO REDUCTION IN RUDDER EFFECTIVENESS VERSUS REVERSE ENGINE THRUST IS MEASURABLE. THIS IS PARTICULARLY TRUE OF DC-9 SIMULATORS. (2) THE RUDDER EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME SIMULATORS IS UNPREDICTABLE, UNEXPLAINABLE, AND NOT CHARACTERISTIC OF WHAT WOULD BE EXPECTED OF THE AIRCRAFT. THE RATE OF TURN IN SOME SIMULATORS ACTUALLY CHANGED SIGN (DIRECTION) AFTER A FEW SECONDS OF REVERSE THRUST APPLICATION AGAINST A FULL RUDDER INPUT. (3) SOME OPERATORS HAVE ATTEMPTED TO MODEL THEIR OWN REVERSE THRUST CHARACTERISTICS FROM FLIGHT TEST DATA. WHILE THIS CAUSES PERFORMANCE SIMILAR TO THAT EXPECTED, THESE MODELS DO NOT HAVE THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE AIRFRAME MANUFACTURER; THEREFORE, THEIR FIDELITY CANNOT BE GUARANTEED. IT IS APPARENT FROM THESE FINDINGS THAT THERE IS NO CONSISTENCY IN THE SIMULATOR PERFORMANCE THROUGHOUT THE INDUSTRY FOR THIS PARTICULAR EFFECT. IF EFFECTIVE TRAINING IS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED, THEN THE FIRST STEP WOULD BE TO ACQUIRE THE NECESSARY DATA AND THEN DEVELOP THE MATHEMATICAL MODELS WITH SUFFICIENT FIDELITY TO PROVIDE AN EFFECTIVE BASIS FOR TRAINING FOR THE DC-9 AND B-727 AIRPLANES. 14 CFR 121, APPENDIX H, REQUIRES THAT ADVANCED SIMULATORS INCORPORATE AERODYNAMIC PROGRAMMING TO INCLUDE: "C. GROUND HANDLING CHARACTERISTIC-STEERING INPUTS TO INCLUDE CROSSWIND, BRAKING, THRUST REVERSING, DECELERATION, AND TURNING RADIUS." WHILE DIRECTIONAL CONTROL WITH REVERSE THRUST IS NOT SPECIFICALLY ADDRESSED, IT IS IMPLIED IN THE ABOVE QUOTATION. THE NEED FOR DIRECTIONAL CONTROL WITH REVERSE THRUST IN ADVANCED SIMULATORS AND THE TRAINING VALUE TO BE DERIVED WAS, THEREFORE, RECOGNIZED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADVANCED SIMULATION PLAN. IT WAS ALSO RECOGNIZED THAT DATA WAS NOT AVAILABLE TO PROGRAM SIMULATORS SINCE DIRECTIONAL CONTROL WITH REVERSE THRUST WAS ONLY A INCORPORATE NEW FEATURES IS SERIOUSLY LIMITED BY AVAILABLE 14 CFR 121, APPENDIX H, SPECIFIES REVERSE THRUST DATA FOR AIRPLANES ON WHICH A TYPE CERTIFICATE WAS ISSUED AFTER JUNE 1, 1980. BUT TO HAVE REQUIRED SUCH DATA FOR ALL AIRCRAFT WOULD HAVE BEEN AN ECONOMIC BURDEN TO THE INDUSTRY WHICH WAS NOT WARRANTED IN VIEW OF THE TRAINING VALUE WHICH COULD BE DERIVED. FURTHER, THE CAPABILITY OF OLDER SIMULATORS TO INCORPORATE NEW FEATURES IS SERIOUSLY LIMITED BY AVAILABLE COMPUTER CAPACITY. IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADVISORY CIRCULAR (AC) 120-40, WHICH SUPERSEDED AC 121-14C, IT WAS CONTEMPLATED TO MAKE RUDDER EFFECTIVENESS DURING REVERSE THRUST AN OBJECTIVE TEST FOR SIMULATOR APPROVAL. IN CONSIDERATION OF THE AVAILABLE DATA, HOWEVER, TESTING WAS LIMITED TO QUALITATIVE EVALUATION. THE FAA'S EVALUATION OF ADVANCED SIMULATORS, WITH A SPECIFIC LOOK AT RUDDER EFFECTIVENESS VERSUS REVERSE ENGINE THRUST, HAS NOW BEEN COMPLETED BY THE NATIONAL SIMULATOR EVALUATION TEAM. ITS FINDINGS SHOW A LACK OF CONSISTENCY IN SIMULATOR RESPONSES AND SUGGEST THAT NEGATIVE TRAINING MAY RESULT FROM SOME OF THE SIMULATORS. BECAUSE OF THE SIMULATOR TEAM'S FINDINGS THAT THE SIMULATORS ARE NOT PROGRAMMED FOR THIS MANEUVER, THE FAA WILL CONTINUE TO WORK ON THIS AREA. IF, IN THE FUTURE, THE NECESSARY DATA CAN BE ACQUIRED AND VALIDATED FOR USE IN THE SIMULATORS, THE FAA WILL CONSIDER A CHANGE TO INCORPORATE THE MANEUVER INTO 14 CFR 121 TRAINING PROGRAMS. FOR THE PRESENT, A LETTER WILL BE SENT TO ALL APPROPRIATE FAA REGIONS TO ASSURE THAT THE DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN THE REVERSE THRUST MANEUVER ARE PART OF THE CLASSROOM TRAINING PROGRAM.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 7/8/1982
Response: The revision of advisory circular 121-14C covering reverse thrust characteristics in approved flight simulators is considered to be fully acceptable action. A-81-123 will remain classified as "Open--Acceptable Action," until we receive a final summary regarding the FSB simulator training program review.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 12/30/1981
Response: FAA LTR: THE FAA CONCURS IN THIS RECOMMENDATION. OUR NATIONAL SIMULATOR EVALUATION TEAM (AFO-205) IS PREPARING A REVISION OF ADVISORY CIRCULAR 121-14C COVERING REVERSE THRUST CHARACTERISTICS IN THE APPROVED FLIGHT SIMULATORS. WITH ISSUANCE OF THIS REVISION, THE APPROPRIATE FSB'S WILL REVIEW THE TRAINING PROGRAMS AND IMPLEMENT TRAINING ON THIS MANEUVER AS APPROPRIATE.