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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-96-128
Details
Synopsis: ON 11/12/95, AT 0056 EASTERN TIME (EST), AMERICAN AIRLINES (AAL) FLIGHT 1572, A MCDONNELL DOUGLAS MD-80, REGISTERED IN THE UNITED STATES AS N566AA, STRUCK TREES ON A RIDGE LINE NORTHEAST OF THE AIRPORT, IN EAST GRANBY, CONNECTICUT, WHICH IS ABOUT 2.54 MILES FROM THE END OF RUNWAY 15, AT BRADLEY INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (BDL) WINDSOR LOCKS, CONNECTICUT. THE TREE STRIKE OCCURRED DURING AN INSTRUMENT APPROACH TO RUNWAY 15 IN DARKNESS & IN VARIABLE WIND CONDITIONS. BOTH ENGINES SUBSEQUENTLY LOST POWER FOLLOWING INGESTION OF TREE LIMBS, BUT THE FLIGHTCREW WAS ABLE TO CONTINUE THE FLIGHT TO THE AIRPORT. THE AIRPLANE WAS SUBSTANTIALLY DAMAGED DURING THE EMERGENCY LANDING. ONE OF THE 72 PASSENGERS RECEIVED A MINOR INJURY DURING THE EMERGENCY EVACUATION, & NONE OF THE FIVE CREWMEMBERS WAS INJURED IN THE ACCIDENT. THE FLIGHT, WHICH WAS OPERATING UNDER 14 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS PART 121, ORIGINATED AT O"HARE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, ABOUT 2 HOURS BEFORE THE ACCIDENT.
Recommendation: THE NTSB RECOMMENDS THAT THE FAA: EVALUATE TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES (TERPS) DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NON-PRECISION APPROACHES TO CONSIDER THE INCORPORATION OF A CONSTANT RATE OR CONSTANT ANGLE OF DESCENT TO MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE IN LIEU-DOWN CRITERIA.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: EAST GRANBY, CT, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA96MA008
Accident Reports: Collision with Trees on Final Approach American Airlines Flight 1572, McDonnell Douglas MD-83, N566AA
Report #: AAR-96-05
Accident Date: 11/12/1995
Issue Date: 12/3/1996
Date Closed: 12/8/1998
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 12/8/1998
Response: A-96-128 ASKED THE FAA TO EVALUATE TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES (TERPS) DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NONPRECISION APPROACHES TO CONSIDER THE INCORPORATION OF A CONSTANT RATE OR CONSTANT ANGLE OF DESCENT TO MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE IN LIEU OF STEP-DOWN CRITERIA. THE BOARD BELIEVES THAT THE NEW STANDARDS MEET A-96-128, & IT IS CLASSIFIED "CLOSED--ACCEPTABLE ACTION."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 8/7/1998
Response: (Letter Mail Controlled 8/13/98 3:22:19 PM MC# 981006) THE FAA AGREES WITH THIS RECOMMENDATION & ON 2/13/98, ISSUED CHANGE 17 TO ORDER 8260.3B, UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES (TERPS). THIS CHANGE REQUIRES DESCENT ANGLES & DESCENT GRADIENTS TO BE COMPUTED FOR NONPRECISON APPROACHES BY THE FAA & TO BE SUSEQUENTLY DEPICTED ON AERONAUTICAL CHARTS SUPPLIED BY THE NATIONAL OCEAN SERVICE. THE ANGLES & DESCENT GRADIENTS WILL BE INTEGRATED DURING THE BIENNIAL REVIEW OF EACH INSTRUMENT APPRACH PROCEDURE. AS STATED IN CHANGE 17, THE OPTIMUM DESCENT GRADIENT ON THE FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT IS 318 FT/NM, WHICH APPROXIMATES A 3-DEGREE DESCENT ANGLE. THE INCORPORATION OF DESCENT ANGLE WILL ALLOW VERTICAL NAVIGATION-EQUIPPED AIRCRAFT TO PERFORM A STABILIZED DESCENT ON FINAL APPROACH USING A COMPUTED VERTICAL NAVIGATION PATH. DEPICTION OF A DESCENT GRADIENT WILL ALLOW PILOTS TO DETERMINE A TARGET RATE OF DESCENT TO BE MAINTAINED IN ORDER TO FLY A STABILIZED FINAL APPROACH PATH. CHANGE 17 ALSO ADDRESSES ELIMINATION OF A STEPDOWN FIX THROUGH MANIPULATION OF EITHER THE FINAL APPROACH FIX ALTITUDE/LOCATION OR THE STEPDOWN FIX ALTITUDE/LOCATION. WHERE USE OF A STEPDOWN FIX CANNOT BE AVOIDED, THE DESCENT ANGLE & GRADIENT ARE PROVIDED FOR THE PORTION OF THE FINAL SEGMENT FROM THE STEPDOWN FIX TO THE RUNWAY THRESHOLD. ADDITIONALLY, ON 5/26/98, THE FAA ISSUED ORDER 8260.47 BAROMETRIC VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNAV) INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES DEVELOPMENT. THIS ORDER CONTAINS CRITERIA FOR DESIGN OF STAND ALONE AREA NAVIGATION APPROACHES USING BAROMETRIC VERTICAL NAVIGATION FOR VERTICAL GUIDANCE ON THE FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT. APPROACHES SO DESIGNED WILL SPECIFY A VERTICAL PATH ANGLE FROM THE FINAL APPROACH FIX TO THE RUNWAY THRESHOLD. IN ADDITION, THE MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE OF A CONVENTIONAL NONPRECISION APPROACH HAS BEEN REPLACED BY A DECISION ALTITUDE. USE OF A DECISION ALTITUDE IS AUTHORIZED BECAUSE ALLOWANCE HAS BEEN MADE FOR HEIGHT LOSS DURING A MISSED APPROACH & BECAUSE AN OBSTACLE ASSESSMENT HAS BEEN CONDUCTED OF THE VISUAL SEGMENT (RUNWAY THRESHOLD TO DECISION ALTITUDE POINT) & FOUND CLEAR OF OBSTRUCTIONS.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 4/15/1998
Response: THE FAA AGREES WITH THIS RECOMMENDATION & HAS DEVELOPED DRAFT CRITERIA TO PROVIDE CONSTANT ANGLE-OF-DESCENT FOR AIRCRAFT WITH AREA & VERTICAL NAVIGATION (SOME SPECIAL APPROACHES HAVE BEEN APPROVED FOR SOME OPERATORS). THE DRAFT CRITERIA HAVE BEEN INCORPORATED INTO ORDER 8260.XX, WHICH PROVIDES CRITERIA FOR FIRST-TIME VERTICAL NAVIGATION STAND-ALONE APPROACHES BASED ON MULTISENSOR UPDATED TO THE NAVIGATION PLATFORM. THE ORDER IS BEING COORDINATED WITH INDUSTRY. IT IS ANTICIPATED THAT THE FINAL ORDER WILL BE PUBLISHED IN JUNE 1998.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 4/15/1998
Response: A-96-128 ASKED THE FAA TO EVALUATE TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES (TERPS) DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NON-PRECISION APPROACHES TO CONSIDER THE INCORPORATION OF A CONSTANT RATE OR CONSTANT ANGLE OF DESCENT TO MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE IN LIEU OF STEP-DOWN CRITERIA. PENDING ISSUANCE OF A FINAL ORDER THAT WILL ADDRESS THE INTENT OF THIS RECOMMENDATION, A-96-128 REMAINS CLASSIFIED "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE."

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 6/26/1997
Response: A-96-128 ASKED THE FAA TO EVALUATE TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES (TERPS) DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NONPRECISION APPROACHES TO CONSIDER THE INCORPORATION OF A CONSTANT RATE OR CONSTANT ANGLE OF DESCENT TO MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE IN LIEU OF STEP-DOWN CRITERIA. PENDING RECEIPT OF THESE PROPOSALS, A-96-128 IS CLASSIFIED "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 2/24/1997
Response: THE FAA AGREES WITH THE RECOMMENDATION & WILL BEGIN IMPLEMENTATION OF INSTRUMENT APPROACH DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS IN LATE 1997.