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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation H-15-024
Details
Synopsis: About 12:55 a.m. on Saturday, June 7, 2014, a 2011 Peterbilt truck-tractor in combination with a 2003 Great Dane semitrailer operated by the motor carrier Walmart Transportation LLC (Walmart Transportation truck) was traveling northbound on the New Jersey Turnpike (part of Interstate 95) near Cranbury, New Jersey, in the center lane of the three-lane roadway. Near milepost 71.4, the Walmart Transportation truck encountered traffic that had slowed to less than 10 mph along a construction corridor, due to closure of the center and right-hand lanes. The truck was traveling 65 mph in a nighttime work zone that had a posted speed limit of 45 mph. The Walmart Transportation truck struck the left rear of a slowly moving 2012 Mercedes-Benz limo van (limo van) that was in the center lane. The impact from the Walmart Transportation truck accelerated the limo van forward and caused it to turn to the right. The limo van collided with a 2006 Freightliner tractor-trailer traveling in the right lane. Contact from the Freightliner and Walmart Transportation trucks forced the limo van to roll over one quarter turn onto its left (driver) side. During its roll, the limo van struck the rear of a 2011 Buick Enclave, which then struck the rear of a 2011 Ford F-150 pickup truck. The limo van came to rest overturned onto its left (driver) side across the center lane. After striking the limo van, the Walmart Transportation truck continued into the left lane and struck a 2005 Nissan Altima in the rear before colliding with a guardrail and stopping on the shoulder against a concrete barrier. Twenty-one people in six vehicles were involved in the crash. As a result of the crash, one limo van passenger, who had been riding in the vehicle’s passenger compartment, died on scene, and the other four passengers in this compartment were seriously injured. Five additional people had minor injuries.
Recommendation: TO BENDIX COMMERCIAL VEHICLE SYSTEMS LLC, DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION, AND MERITOR WABCO VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEMS: Include, in all collision warning and avoidance systems for use on truck-tractors, single-unit trucks, and motorcoaches, the capability to store and retrieve data pertaining to object detection, driver audible/visual alerts, and interventions by the system for a period and at a data rate adequate to support accident investigation and reconstruction.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Open - Acceptable Response
Mode: Highway
Location: Cranbury, NJ, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: HWY14MH012
Accident Reports: ​Preliminary Report: Highway Accident Investigation, Cranbury, NJMultivehicle Work Zone Crash on Interstate 95
Report #: HAR-15-02
Accident Date: 6/7/2014
Issue Date: 9/8/2015
Date Closed:
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems, LLC (Open - Acceptable Response)
Detroit Diesel Corporation (Open - Await Response)
Meritor WABCO (Open - Acceptable Response)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems, LLC
Date: 3/29/2017
Response: The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has reviewed the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), “Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS): V2V Communications,” published at 82 Federal Register (FR) 3854, January 12, 2017. NHTSA proposes to create a new FMVSS, No. 150, to mandate vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications for all new light vehicles and to standardize the message and format of V2V transmissions. The new standard will support vehicle and device manufacturers in creating and implementing applications to improve safety, mobility, and the information environment. The NTSB enthusiastically supports this proposed rulemaking and believes that V2V technology will reduce crashes, injuries, and fatalities on our nation’s highways, and enhance the capabilities of currently available collision avoidance and automated technologies. V2V Data Recording Capability Although the collection of data by on-board vehicle systems such as event data recorders and on-board diagnostic systems is not new, V2V systems will have the capability of creating and transmitting data on driver behavior and the surrounding environment?which is not currently available from most on-board systems. Data transmitted will include information on vehicle speed, heading, acceleration, yaw rate, steering wheel angle, longitude and latitude position, path prediction, and history. For these reasons, the proposed rule establishes multiple technical, physical, and organization controls to reduce privacy risks?including controls to prevent tracking by individuals and government or commercial entities. Additionally, as proposed, V2V messages will not contain information directly identifying a vehicle or its driver, and will not collect or store messages except for the limited time needed to maintain awareness of messages for safety purposes or in case of equipment malfunction. Although we understand NHTSA’s interest in protecting individual privacy, we maintain that specific data requirements are necessary to record information in the event of a system malfunction or crash. Recorded data can be used to improve these systems and to understand situations that may not have been considered in the original design. Further, data are needed to appropriately assess V2V safety performance and to provide defect information to the vehicle’s manufacturer, as applicable. During recent NTSB crash investigations, we determined that collision warning and avoidance systems capable of storing and retrieving vehicle and system performance information would aid in the evaluation and improvement of such systems, as well as facilitate a better understanding of crashes. For example, we recently investigated a multivehicle crash in Cranbury, New Jersey, in which a truck-tractor semitrailer failed to slow for stopped traffic in an active work zone and struck a limo van.16 Twenty-one people in six vehicles were involved in the crash. One limo van passenger died, and four other passengers were seriously injured. The truck-tractor was equipped with an advanced braking system capable of providing FCW alerts to the fatigued driver. However, because of limited data recording capability, the system did not record any forward radar sensor data, which made it difficult to analyze and assess both the crash and the system’s performance. As a result of this investigation, the NTSB recommended that manufacturers of collision warning and avoidance systems for use on commercial vehicles include in those systems the capability to store and retrieve data pertaining to object detection, driver audible/visual alerts, and interventions for a period and at a data rate adequate to support crash investigation and reconstruction.

From: NTSB
To: Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems, LLC
Date: 1/14/2016
Response: As Mr. Beyer pointed out in his letter, the Wingman ACB driver assistance system that was installed in the accident truck performed as intended, and, given the closing speed between the truck and the limo van, average driver reaction time, and brake system actuation, a warning would not have prevented the collision. However, the system’s limited ability to capture and store data was a constraint, because it limited both your ability to analyze and enhance system performance and the accident investigators’ ability to reconstruct accident events accurately. We note that your newer driver assistance systems have additional data capture and storage capabilities, and we are pleased that you continue to enhance your products. However, we remain concerned about the frequency of severe crashes and believe that collision warning and avoidance systems capable of storing and retrieving vehicle and system performance information would aid in the evaluation and improvement of such systems, as well as facilitate a better understanding of these types of crashes. We look forward to receiving updates regarding your work to standardize the recommended data retention capability for all of the driver assistance systems you offer. Pending completion of such action, Safety Recommendation H-15-24 is classified OPEN—ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.

From: Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems, LLC
To: NTSB
Date: 12/8/2015
Response: -From Claus Beyer, Vice President and General Manager, Controls and Electronic Technology: Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC ("Bendix") hereby responds to the NTSB's Safety Recommendation H-15-24 In response to the NTSB's recommendation, the data recording function installed in the subject 2011 Peterbilt adequately indicated that all Bendix driver assistance systems were performing as intended. The data also indicated that the driver was traveling well in excess of the posted speed limit and failed to adequately brake the vehicle in the seconds prior to impact. Bendix also notes that newer Bendix driver assistance systems have additional data capabilities including Bendix's optional Auto Vue forward facing camera with video-recording capability. Bendix thanks the NTSB for the opportunity to address the recommendation and trusts that this response provides closure regarding the subject recommendation.

From: NTSB
To: Detroit Diesel Corporation
Date: 3/29/2017
Response: The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has reviewed the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), “Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS): V2V Communications,” published at 82 Federal Register (FR) 3854, January 12, 2017. NHTSA proposes to create a new FMVSS, No. 150, to mandate vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications for all new light vehicles and to standardize the message and format of V2V transmissions. The new standard will support vehicle and device manufacturers in creating and implementing applications to improve safety, mobility, and the information environment. The NTSB enthusiastically supports this proposed rulemaking and believes that V2V technology will reduce crashes, injuries, and fatalities on our nation’s highways, and enhance the capabilities of currently available collision avoidance and automated technologies. V2V Data Recording Capability Although the collection of data by on-board vehicle systems such as event data recorders and on-board diagnostic systems is not new, V2V systems will have the capability of creating and transmitting data on driver behavior and the surrounding environment?which is not currently available from most on-board systems. Data transmitted will include information on vehicle speed, heading, acceleration, yaw rate, steering wheel angle, longitude and latitude position, path prediction, and history. For these reasons, the proposed rule establishes multiple technical, physical, and organization controls to reduce privacy risks?including controls to prevent tracking by individuals and government or commercial entities. Additionally, as proposed, V2V messages will not contain information directly identifying a vehicle or its driver, and will not collect or store messages except for the limited time needed to maintain awareness of messages for safety purposes or in case of equipment malfunction. Although we understand NHTSA’s interest in protecting individual privacy, we maintain that specific data requirements are necessary to record information in the event of a system malfunction or crash. Recorded data can be used to improve these systems and to understand situations that may not have been considered in the original design. Further, data are needed to appropriately assess V2V safety performance and to provide defect information to the vehicle’s manufacturer, as applicable. During recent NTSB crash investigations, we determined that collision warning and avoidance systems capable of storing and retrieving vehicle and system performance information would aid in the evaluation and improvement of such systems, as well as facilitate a better understanding of crashes. For example, we recently investigated a multivehicle crash in Cranbury, New Jersey, in which a truck-tractor semitrailer failed to slow for stopped traffic in an active work zone and struck a limo van.16 Twenty-one people in six vehicles were involved in the crash. One limo van passenger died, and four other passengers were seriously injured. The truck-tractor was equipped with an advanced braking system capable of providing FCW alerts to the fatigued driver. However, because of limited data recording capability, the system did not record any forward radar sensor data, which made it difficult to analyze and assess both the crash and the system’s performance. As a result of this investigation, the NTSB recommended that manufacturers of collision warning and avoidance systems for use on commercial vehicles include in those systems the capability to store and retrieve data pertaining to object detection, driver audible/visual alerts, and interventions for a period and at a data rate adequate to support crash investigation and reconstruction.

From: NTSB
To: Meritor WABCO
Date: 3/29/2017
Response: The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has reviewed the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), “Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS): V2V Communications,” published at 82 Federal Register (FR) 3854, January 12, 2017. NHTSA proposes to create a new FMVSS, No. 150, to mandate vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications for all new light vehicles and to standardize the message and format of V2V transmissions. The new standard will support vehicle and device manufacturers in creating and implementing applications to improve safety, mobility, and the information environment. The NTSB enthusiastically supports this proposed rulemaking and believes that V2V technology will reduce crashes, injuries, and fatalities on our nation’s highways, and enhance the capabilities of currently available collision avoidance and automated technologies. V2V Data Recording Capability Although the collection of data by on-board vehicle systems such as event data recorders and on-board diagnostic systems is not new, V2V systems will have the capability of creating and transmitting data on driver behavior and the surrounding environment?which is not currently available from most on-board systems. Data transmitted will include information on vehicle speed, heading, acceleration, yaw rate, steering wheel angle, longitude and latitude position, path prediction, and history. For these reasons, the proposed rule establishes multiple technical, physical, and organization controls to reduce privacy risks?including controls to prevent tracking by individuals and government or commercial entities. Additionally, as proposed, V2V messages will not contain information directly identifying a vehicle or its driver, and will not collect or store messages except for the limited time needed to maintain awareness of messages for safety purposes or in case of equipment malfunction. Although we understand NHTSA’s interest in protecting individual privacy, we maintain that specific data requirements are necessary to record information in the event of a system malfunction or crash. Recorded data can be used to improve these systems and to understand situations that may not have been considered in the original design. Further, data are needed to appropriately assess V2V safety performance and to provide defect information to the vehicle’s manufacturer, as applicable. During recent NTSB crash investigations, we determined that collision warning and avoidance systems capable of storing and retrieving vehicle and system performance information would aid in the evaluation and improvement of such systems, as well as facilitate a better understanding of crashes. For example, we recently investigated a multivehicle crash in Cranbury, New Jersey, in which a truck-tractor semitrailer failed to slow for stopped traffic in an active work zone and struck a limo van.16 Twenty-one people in six vehicles were involved in the crash. One limo van passenger died, and four other passengers were seriously injured. The truck-tractor was equipped with an advanced braking system capable of providing FCW alerts to the fatigued driver. However, because of limited data recording capability, the system did not record any forward radar sensor data, which made it difficult to analyze and assess both the crash and the system’s performance. As a result of this investigation, the NTSB recommended that manufacturers of collision warning and avoidance systems for use on commercial vehicles include in those systems the capability to store and retrieve data pertaining to object detection, driver audible/visual alerts, and interventions for a period and at a data rate adequate to support crash investigation and reconstruction.

From: NTSB
To: Meritor WABCO
Date: 2/3/2016
Response: During our accident investigation, we found that the driver assistance system installed in the accident truck had performed as intended, and, given the closing speed between the truck and the limo van, average driver reaction time, and brake system actuation, a warning would not have prevented the collision. However, the system’s limited ability to capture and store data was a constraint, because it limited both the manufacturer’s ability to analyze and enhance system performance and the accident investigators’ ability to reconstruct accident events accurately. We note that your newer driver assistance systems have enhanced data capture and storage capabilities, including the ability to broadcast data in real time on a 10Hz frequency. We are pleased that you continue to improve your products, although we remain concerned about the frequency of severe crashes and believe that collision warning and avoidance systems capable of storing and retrieving vehicle and system performance information would aid in the evaluation and improvement of such systems, as well as facilitate a better understanding of these crashes. We look forward to receiving updates regarding your work to standardize the recommended data retention capability for all of the driver assistance systems you offer, perhaps by incorporating your suggested use of a central data storage unit. Pending completion of such action, Safety Recommendation H-15-24 is classified OPEN—ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.

From: Meritor WABCO
To: NTSB
Date: 11/13/2015
Response: -From Stephen Hampson, President and General Manager, Meritor WABCO: Meritor WASCO is a North American joint venture focused on the application and delivery of proven, integrated safety technologies and vehicle efficiency components. These include braking and active safety systems, as well as suspension and control systems for commercial trucks and trailers in North America. Parent companies Meritor Inc. and WASCO Holdings Inc., each with more than 100-year legacies, have partnered since 1990 to provide the North American commercial vehicle market with innovative safety and efficiency solutions. Meritor Inc., a supplier of drivetrain, mobility, braking and aftermarket solutions for commercial vehicle and industrial markets, provides Meritor W ABCO with an extensive service and support network; while WASCO Holdings, Inc. is a leading global supplier of technologies that improve the safety and efficiency of commercial vehicles. WASCO continues to pioneer breakthrough products and systems for braking, stability, suspension, transmission automation, and aerodynamics. In reference to the National Transportation Safety Board Safety Recommendation H-15-24 received on September 8, 2015, Meritor WASCO offers the following response. The June 7, 2014 work zone accident that occurred on Interstate 95 in Cranbury, New Jersey was very unfortunate and we offer our deepest sympathies to the families of those killed and injured in the crash. Meritor WASCO's Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are designed to reduce the likelihood of such serious large truck and bus crashes and improve safety on the public roads. Through on-going product development, system performance continues to evolve, making ADAS more effective at avoiding crashes or mitigating their severity if they occur. The Meritor WASCO OnGuard™ collision mitigation system is designed to avoid or mitigate potential rear end collisions. OnGuard utilizes a powerful radar sensor that is constantly analyzing the traffic condition in front of the truck. When a potential truck-striking rear end crash is detected, the system will provide an audible and visual warning to alert the driver to take appropriate corrective action. If the driver does not react and the situation persists, the system provides a more urgent haptic warning which is a short activation of the vehicle's service brakes. Ultimately, if the driver still does not react properly, the system will automatically apply the vehicle's brakes, causing rapid deceleration with the goal of avoiding a crash or mitigating its severity (see attached diagram). Today's OnGuard product will warn, and if necessary, automatically brake on moving or stopping vehicles. On stationary vehicles, those in which the radar sensor never detected any motion, today's system will provide an audible and visual warning but will not brake. In early 2016, Meritor WABCO will release a new version, OnGuardACTIVE™, that will have all of today's system features plus the ability to warn and brake on stationary vehicles. H-15-24 provides the following recommendation to Meritor WABCO as well as other companies: "Include, in all collision warning and avoidance systems for use on truck-tractors, single-unit trucks, and motorcoaches, the capability to store and retrieve data pertaining to object detection, driver audible/visual alerts, and interventions by the system for a period and at a data rate adequate to support accident investigation and reconstruction." Meritor WABCO carefully reviewed and understands the NTSB's rationale for providing this recommendation. When events occur, our customers on occasion contact us to provide an explanation as to the root cause of a particular incident. Currently, OnGuard internally stores some data in the radar sensor pertaining to the most recent haptic warning and collision mitigation brake event, including the following characteristics that existed at the time the event initiated: odometer reading, host vehicle speed, acceleration, brake pedal position, cruise control status (on/off), distance to target vehicle, target vehicle speed, target vehicle acceleration, time tracking the target vehicle and time to collision. There are also event counters in the radar sensor that track the total number of forward collision warnings, haptic warnings and collision mitigation braking events that occurred for the lifetime of the radar sensor. These events are not time stamped. This internally stored information can be accessed using Meritor WABCO's PC based diagnostic TOOLBOX™ application. In addition to internally storing information, the Meritor WABCO OnGuard system will continually broadcast all of the above mentioned data variables real time on SAE J1939 bus at a frequency of 10Hz. Unless there is a device on the vehicle to capture and store this data when it is broadcast, it will not be available for future analysis. Meritor WABCO has given consideration to storing this real time data internally within the OnGuard radar sensor per the NTSB recommendation, but for the reasons provided below, concluded this data storage would be best accomplished in a device designed specifically for this task: 1) Storing real time data would add additional complexity to the system's microcontroller and require additional storage in the radar sensor. 2) The required mounting location of the radar sensor is the front bumper area of the vehicle so it can track frontal vehicles. In the event the OnGuard system is only able to mitigate the consequences of a crash, the radar sensor is vulnerable to damage and thus the data might not be extractable. Meritor WABCO recommends the data storage device be mounted in a safer location on the vehicle. 3) There are other electronic control systems on the vehicle including the engine, transmission, antilock braking system (ABS), stability control, lane departure warning, blind spot, etc. that could provide valuable information regarding accident investigation and reconstruction. A central storage device capable of gathering relevant data from a variety of sources would provide a more complete picture of a particular event and is recommended. 4) Telematic and fleet performance video analytic devices are currently installed on some vehicles which are well suited to store this information from a variety of sources. Some modifications would be required to capture all information at the desired frequency. Meritor WASCO will continue to develop products that reduce the likelihood of heavy truck crashes and welcome the opportunity to work with the NTSS and other agencies and organizations to achieve this objective. Meritor WASCO agrees with the NTSS regarding the importance of data in determining the root cause of a particular crash event and understanding the response of the driver and the various safety systems installed on the vehicle. Our recommendation is to install a safely mounted central data storage device that could capture relevant information from a variety of onboard systems as the optimum solution. Please review this information and let us know if you have any questions or comments.