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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation H-18-046
Synopsis: In this special investigation report, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) examines pedestrian safety in the United States and recommends actions to help prevent pedestrian injuries and fatalities. The investigation, which began in 2016 with a public forum on pedestrian safety, was supported by an inquiry into the causes of 15 crashes in which vehicles fatally injured pedestrians on public highways—representing only a fraction of the nearly 6,000 pedestrians killed on US roads in 2016. The report reviews the past 10 years of data on highway deaths; describes previous NTSB investigations related to pedestrian safety, including the 15 fatal pedestrian crashes as well as studies of the effects of speed and alcohol on highway crashes; summarizes the issues raised during the public forum; and makes 11 recommendations for improving pedestrian safety. The report considers vehicle-based countermeasures, such as improved headlights, vehicle designs that reduce injuries to pedestrians, and collision avoidance systems. It also reviews infrastructure designs that make streets safer for pedestrians. The report emphasizes that better data are needed—especially on pedestrian activity (exposure data) and on the types and outcomes of crashes involving pedestrians—to improve federal, state, and local decision-making related to pedestrian safety. As a result of its special investigation, the NTSB made safety recommendations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Recommendation: TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Examine the past framework of the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System and establish methods that states and metropolitan planning organizations can use to collect pedestrian event data, then define a common framework that will allow those data sources to be combined.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Open - Acceptable Response
Mode: Highway
Location: Washington, DC
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Accident #: DCA15SS005
Accident Reports:
Report #: SIR-18-03
Accident Date: 8/24/2015
Issue Date: 10/23/2018
Date Closed:
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: NHTSA (Open - Acceptable Response)

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
Date: 6/10/2019
Response: We are encouraged by your efforts to improve the data links between the Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria guideline and the NEMSIS database, and we appreciate your comprehensive assessment of the CODES program. In response to Safety Recommendation H 18 45, you explained that updates to the NEMSIS database are ongoing; therefore, it seems that the systems cannot yet be fully combined. We encourage you to leverage the progress that is being made in conjunction with the Safety Recommendation H-18-45 project and to disseminate the data linkage methods to the states and metropolitan planning organizations creating the recommended common framework. Until such efforts are complete, Safety Recommendation H-18-46 is classified OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.

Date: 3/18/2019
Response: -From Jonathan Morrison, Chief Counsel: NHTSA established CODES to enhance the data related to medical and financial consequences of motor vehicle crashes. The motivation was that linking crash, vehicle, and behavior characteristics to their specific medical and financial outcomes would provide a more comprehensive understanding of motor vehicle crash outcomes. NHTSA supported and worked with States to develop data linkage programs under the CODES effort from 1992 to 2013. In 2013, State CODES programs became fully autonomous. NHTSA has explored using both probabilistic and deterministic linkage between various data sources because NHTSA believes the linkage of various data sets will help provide a framework for a more comprehensive understanding of motor vehicle crash outcomes, especially for pedestrians. During its early research utilizing the CODES network, NHTSA identified major shortcomings in the use of the probabilistic data linkage methodology. At its best, only a small number of States ( 5) could establish a linkage and the success rate was never more than 80 percent. In addition, the links and match results could not be validated. As a result, NHTSA began supporting the establishment of infrastructure in State-based record systems to enable specific deterministic methods/parameters for data linkage. This framework now exists in the Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria (MMUCC) to link to NEMSIS. The unique vehicle identification number required in the MMDCC guideline has been added to the NEMSIS software requirements. The States now have the ability to collect the matching variables and attributes in each of their specific data sources. See, e.g., ; and Based on the abovementioned actions, we request that Recommendation H-18-46 be classified as Closed - Acceptable Action.

From: NTSB
Date: 10/23/2018
Response: The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an independent federal agency charged by Congress with investigating every civil aviation accident in the United States and significant accidents in other modes of transportation—railroad, highway, marine, and pipeline. We determine the probable cause of the accidents and issue safety recommendations aimed at preventing future accidents. In addition, we carry out special studies concerning transportation safety and coordinate the resources of the federal government and other organizations to provide assistance to victims and their family members affected by major transportation disasters. On September 25, 2018, the NTSB adopted its special investigation report Pedestrian Safety, NTSB/SIR-18/03. The details of the special investigation and the resulting safety recommendations may be found in the attached report, which can also be accessed at Among the Safety Recommendations are eight issued to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, which can be found on page 42 of the report. The NTSB is vitally interested in this recommendation because it is designed to prevent accidents and save lives. We would appreciate a response within 90 days, detailing the actions you have taken or intend to take to implement this recommendation. When replying, please refer to the safety recommendation by number. We encourage you to submit your response to If it exceeds 20 megabytes, including attachments, please e-mail us at the same address for instructions. Please do not submit both an electronic copy and a hard copy of the same response.