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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation H-18-047
Details
Synopsis: In this special investigation report, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) examines pedestrian safety in the United States and recommends actions to help prevent pedestrian injuries and fatalities. The investigation, which began in 2016 with a public forum on pedestrian safety, was supported by an inquiry into the causes of 15 crashes in which vehicles fatally injured pedestrians on public highways—representing only a fraction of the nearly 6,000 pedestrians killed on US roads in 2016. The report reviews the past 10 years of data on highway deaths; describes previous NTSB investigations related to pedestrian safety, including the 15 fatal pedestrian crashes as well as studies of the effects of speed and alcohol on highway crashes; summarizes the issues raised during the public forum; and makes 11 recommendations for improving pedestrian safety. The report considers vehicle-based countermeasures, such as improved headlights, vehicle designs that reduce injuries to pedestrians, and collision avoidance systems. It also reviews infrastructure designs that make streets safer for pedestrians. The report emphasizes that better data are needed—especially on pedestrian activity (exposure data) and on the types and outcomes of crashes involving pedestrians—to improve federal, state, and local decision-making related to pedestrian safety. As a result of its special investigation, the NTSB made safety recommendations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Recommendation: TO THE FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION: Expand your support of state and local safety projects beyond focus cities to promote municipal pedestrian safety action plans that develop a network of safety improvements.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Open - Acceptable Response
Mode: Highway
Location: Washington, DC
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA15SS005
Accident Reports:
Report #: SIR-18-03
Accident Date: 8/24/2015
Issue Date: 10/23/2018
Date Closed:
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FHWA (Open - Acceptable Response)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: FHWA
To: NTSB
Date: 9/23/2019
Response: -From Nicole R. Nason, Administrator: Thank you for your May 6 letter classifying Recommendation H-18-4 7 as Open-Acceptable Response and Recommendation H-18-48 as Open-Acceptable Alternate Response. These recommendations were issued to the Federal Highway Administration (FHW A) following the National Transportation Safety Board's special investigation concerning pedestrian safety. This letter provides additional information about FHW A initiatives that address Recommendation H-18-4 7: Expand your support of State and local safety projects beyond focus cities to promote municipal pedestrian safety action plans that develop a network of safety improvements. The enclosed list, as detailed as we can offer, shows the robust materials FHWA has developed to assist State and local agencies. We generally do not document technical assistance requests, but we have provided information on technical assistance FHW A has delivered through presentations, workshops, peer exchanges, scan tours and other venues. Improving pedestrian safety and mobility continues to be a priority of FHW A. We believe the information included in the enclosure fulfills the intent of the recommendation and request that Recommendation H-18-4 7 be classified as Closed-Acceptable Action. If you have any questions, please contact Shirley Thompson. RECOMMENDATION H-18-47 SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION FROM FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION List of the cities and States, outside of the eligible "Focused Approach" list (https://saf ety.tbwa.dot.gov/fasD, that have requested and obtained technical assistance over the past 2 years. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) does not maintain a list of technical assistance requests of this sort; however, the information below about Every Day Counts and Safe Transportation for Every Pedestrian should be helpful. Documentation of any technical assistance or additional resources provided to cities and States in conjunction with the document, "How to Develop a Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Action Plan." As stated above, FHW A does not maintain a list of technical assistance requests of this sort. The How to Develop a Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Action Plan (guide) is intended to be a standalone resource. As noted in the guide: The purpose of this guide is to assist agencies in developing and implementing a safety action plan to improve conditions for bicycling and walking. The plan lays out a vision for improving safety, examining existing conditions, and using a data driven approach to match safety programs and improvements with demonstrated safety concerns. This guide will help agencies enhance their existing safety programs and activities, including identifying safety concerns and selecting optimal solutions. It will also serve as a reference for improving pedestrian and bicycle safety through a multidisciplinary and collaborative approach to safety, including street designs and countermeasures, policies, and behavioral programs. Supplemental documents outlining how the fourth round of Every Day Counts (EDC-4) has worked to promote pedestrian safety countermeasures with the 36 States beyond the 16 focus States specified under the Safe Transportation for Every Pedestrian (STEP) program. The information below catalogs, to the extent feasible, information about how STEP has assisted States that are not part of the Focused Approach. EDC-4 and EDC-5 STEP -Technical Assistance and Training Delivered to Local or State Agencies as of May 2019 (Note: This list only applies to States that are not part of the FHWA Focused Approach to Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Program.) Training (Workshops and Conference Presentations) • STEP presentation via Association for Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals (APBP) (June 2017) • STEP workshop at Walkable Washington Conference (October 2017) • STEP presentation to West Virginia transportation conference (November 2017) • STEP presentation to Transportation Research Board (TRB) Standing Committee on Pedestrians (January 2018) • STEP presentation to National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (January 2018) • ActiveTrans Priority Tool (APT) webinar presentation to Washington State DOT (February 2018) • STEP presentation at the New Partners for Smart Growth Conference (February 2018) • STEP poster session at the New England Bike-Walk Summit (April 2018); Mid-Atlantic Bike-Walk Summit (April 2019) • STEP presentation at the 2018 Lifesavers Conference (April 2018) • STEP workshop at Deep South Institute of Transportation Engineers {ITE) meeting in Biloxi, MS (June 2018) • STEP workshops for Washington State DOT (October 2018) • STEP session during TRB Uncontrolled Crossing Workshop (January 2019) • STEP presentation for Washington State DOT Design Policy Group (January 2019) • Presentation on Road Diets for Vision Zero Summit; City of Bellevue, WA (February 2019) • STEP workshop/Countermeasure Toolbox meeting-MaineDOT (February 2019) • STEP Road Diet presentation at the 2019 Lifesavers Conference (March 2019) • STEP workshop with Washington State Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) (March 2019) • STEP workshops in Alabama (multiple dates April 2019) • STEP workshops in New Hampshire (multiple dates April 2019) • STEP workshops with Connecticut LT AP (April and May 2019) • STEP workshops with Virginia LTAP (May 2019) Technical Assistance/In-Person Support • Shared Road Diet presentation resources with Virginia DOT • Shared guidance about countermeasure selection with St. Paul, MN in support of local pedestrian plan • Provided technical advice regarding Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacon installations to Honolulu, HI; Virginia DOT • Facilitated Arkansas-Tennessee Scan Tour: Arkansas DOT visit to Tennessee DOT installation sites of STEP countermeasures (May 2018) • Hosted and led STEP Peer Exchange: 2-day event with Arizona, Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Tennessee DOTs (March 2018) • Facilitated STEP Action Plan Meetings (23 Total) - One-day meetings with 22 States and Federal Lands Highways to develop strategic plan for advancing STEP countermeasures; delivered draft and final reports summarizing the selected actions and policies • Conducted STEP Road Safety Assessments (RSAs) and reports for the following agencies: o MaineDOT: Bangor, ME o MaineDOT: Brewer, ME o Gulf Regional Planning Commission (Gulfport, MS) Description of resources (such as training, analytical tools, and workshops) available to State and local agencies when implementing the seven countermeasures relevant to STEP EDC-5. As of June 2019, FHWA has developed numerous STEP-related resources for State and local agencies, including: • Guide for Improving Pedestrian Safety at Uncontrolled Crossing Locations: FHWA developed this guidance document in 2018, and it details a six-step process and tools to help agencies select countermeasures for uncontrolled crossing locations. The guide includes two tables to help decisionmakers select countermeasure options based on research and best practices. • Field Guide for Selecting Countermeasures at Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Locations: This resource includes a series of worksheets to help agencies document roadway characteristics and pedestrian safety issues in preparation for selecting countermeasures as outlined in the Guide for Improving Pedestrian Safety at Uncontrolled Crossing Locations. • Process for Selecting Countermeasures at Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Locations: This one-page poster shows the steps outlined in the Guide for Improving Pedestrian Safety at Uncontrolled Crossing Locations, providing links to other guidance and resources. • STEP Countermeasure Selection Option Added to PEDSAFE (Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System): PEDSAFE Countermeasure Selection Tool was updated to include an interactive version of the FHW A Guide for Improving Pedestrian Safety at Uncontrolled Crossing Locations. The tool responds to inputs provided by the user and returns a list of STEP countermeasures suitable to the roadway conditions. Each countermeasure is linked to a page in PEDSAFE that includes details about typical costs, design considerations, and installation examples. • STEP Countermeasure Videos: This set of five (5) videos explaining the overall purpose and design elements of five of the STEP countermeasures. These animated videos will help educate a broad spectrum of officials and the general public. These videos are a great way to engage audiences at conferences and public meetings. • STEP Case Studies: This set of ten (10), two-page case studies include five examples of local and State agency policies addressing STEP countermeasures and highlights five installation exan1ples of STEP countermeasures including measured impacts on pedestrian safety. • STEP Countermeasure Tech Sheets: This set of six "tech sheets" describe each of the STEP countermeasures promoted during EDC-4: crosswalk visibility enhancements, raised crosswalks, refuge islands, RRFB (Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacon), PHB (Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon), and Road Diets. Each two-page tech sheet includes an illustrative rendering, cost information, design considerations, and crash reduction factors. As part of EDC-5, the STEP team plans to develop and release a similar tech sheet featuring the Leading Pedestrian Interval. • State Best Practices for Implementing STEP: Set of eight (8), one-page summaries describe tools, policies, and practices that State DOTs have used to promote the installation of the STEP countermeasures. The summaries explain how Complete Streets policies, statewide transportation plans, data analysis, training and other practices have supported implementation of STEP countermeasures. (posting date to be determined to FHWA Office of Safety STEP Resource Page) • State-Specific STEP Handouts (2018): Each State that attended the STEP workshop during a fall 2018 EDC-5 Summit received a unique two-page summary of progress made under the STEP program, pedestrian fatality trends, and other performance measures related to the STEP progran1. The handouts were designed to encourage States to enlist in the STEP innovation as part of EDC-5. • Recorded Webinars Available Online: o STEP: Selecting Countermeasures for Uncontrolled Crossing Locations: Webinar hosted by the UNC Highway Safety Research Center: January 30, 2018 o Tools to Inventory Pedestrian Crossing Infrastructure: Webinar hosted by the UNC Highway Safety Research Center: April 10, 2018 o Safe Pedestrian Crossings at Transit Stops: Webinar hosted by the National Aging and Disability Transportation Center (NADTC): April 19, 2018 o Improving Crossings with Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons: Webinar hosted by the UNC Highway Safety Research Center: May 29, 2018 o Proactively Addressing Crash Risk with Systemic Safety Analysis: Webinar hosted by the UNC Highway Safety Research Center: October 11 , 2018:· o Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacons: Webinar hosted by the UNC Highway Safety Research Center: October 30, 2018 o Planning for Pedestrian Safety: Leveraging FHW A Resources and Local Partnerships to Improve Pedestrian Crossings: Webinar hosted by UNC Highway Safety Research Center: March 12, 2019 Additional resources under development and anticipated for release Summer 201 9: • Midblock Crosswalks: Improving Safety for Pedestrians Between Intersections – This brief guidance document will summarize considerations for mid block crosswalks and will clarify several "myths" regarding crosswalk installation. • Summary of Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacon (RRFB) Installations on High-Speed Roadways - Current safety research has focused on RRFB installations along roads with speeds at or less than 35 miles per hour or at crossings with low to moderate traffic volume. Several local and State agencies have had success with RRFB installations in different contexts. This resource will describe considerations conm1on to these agencies and examples where RRFBs were installed along roads with speeds posted over 35 miles per hour or at multi-lane roadways with heavy traffic. • Summary of Agency Guidelines for Leading Pedestrian Interval (LPI) Installation – As the LPI is rapidly gaining prominence and is being installed systemically by cities across the United States, this resource will summarize the guidance or practices that several cities and States are developing or following to support decisions to install LPIs.

From: NTSB
To: FHWA
Date: 5/6/2019
Response: We are pleased to note that you offer resources to and accept requests from nonfocus states and cities to support their efforts to develop pedestrian safety action plans. These actions are responsive to the intent of this recommendation; however, the details explaining how the resources are distributed are not readily available on your website. To help us understand the reach of these programs, we request some additional information, including, at a minimum, the following: • List of the cities and states, outside of the eligible “Focused Approach” list (https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/fas/), that have requested and obtained technical assistance from you over the past 2 years. • Documentation of any technical assistance or additional resources provided to cities and states in conjunction with the document, “How to Develop a Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Action Plan.” • Supplemental documents outlining how the fourth round of Every Day Counts (EDC-4) has worked to promote pedestrian safety countermeasures with the 36 states beyond the 16 focus states specified under the Safe Transportation for Every Pedestrian (STEP) program. • Description of resources (such as training, analytical tools, and workshops) available to state and local agencies when implementing the seven countermeasures relevant to STEP EDC 5. This additional information will allow us to thoroughly evaluate the extent to which your programs fulfill the intent of this recommendation. Pending our receipt and review of this additional information, Safety Recommendation H-18-47 is classified OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.

From: FHWA
To: NTSB
Date: 2/14/2019
Response: -From Brandye L. Hendrickson, Deputy Administrator: In 2004, FHWA launched the Focused Approach to Safety to target FHWA's limited resources on the locations with the most severe pedestrian safety concerns. However, as noted on the Office of Safety Website (https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/fas/), non-Focus States and Cities can still request assistance, but they " ... will simply not have as high of a priority as the needs of Focus States and Focus Cities." We do not typically turn down technical assistance requests. The FHW A has also developed numerous resources to empower local agencies to develop action plans on their own. How to Develop a Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Action Plan, which is cited in the special investigation report, is accessible on the Office of Safety Website. In addition, the Every Day Counts initiative entitled Safe Transportation for Every Pedestrian (STEP), started in 2017 and continuing through 2020, increases FHWA's reach in assisting State and local agencies in creating safer pedestrian networks. Through STEP, FHWA has worked with 36 States to improve pedestrian safety at crossings, thus extending our reach beyond the 16 Focus States. Additional States may sign up for assistance during 2019 and 2020. The FHWA has a variety of technical assistance efforts to help agencies, beyond Focus States and Cities, that request aid and has tools that other agencies can use without direct assistance. We believe these actions satisfy the intent of the recommendation and request that Recommendation H-18-47 be classified as Closed-Acceptable Action.

From: NTSB
To: FHWA
Date: 10/23/2018
Response: The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an independent federal agency charged by Congress with investigating every civil aviation accident in the United States and significant accidents in other modes of transportation—railroad, highway, marine, and pipeline. We determine the probable cause of the accidents and issue safety recommendations aimed at preventing future accidents. In addition, we carry out special studies concerning transportation safety and coordinate the resources of the federal government and other organizations to provide assistance to victims and their family members affected by major transportation disasters. On September 25, 2018, the NTSB adopted its special investigation report Pedestrian Safety, NTSB/SIR-18/03.. The details of the special investigation and the resulting safety recommendations may be found in the attached report, which can also be accessed at http://www.ntsb.gov. Among the Safety Recommendations are two issued to the Federal Highway Administration, which can be found on pages 42 and 43 of the report. The NTSB is vitally interested in this recommendation because it is designed to prevent accidents and save lives. We would appreciate a response within 90 days, detailing the actions you have taken or intend to take to implement this recommendation. When replying, please refer to the safety recommendation by number. We encourage you to submit your response to correspondence@ntsb.gov. If it exceeds 20 megabytes, including attachments, please e-mail us at the same address for instructions. Please do not submit both an electronic copy and a hard copy of the same response.