Skip Ribbon Commands
Skip to main content
Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation H-18-049
Details
Synopsis: In this special investigation report, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) examines pedestrian safety in the United States and recommends actions to help prevent pedestrian injuries and fatalities. The investigation, which began in 2016 with a public forum on pedestrian safety, was supported by an inquiry into the causes of 15 crashes in which vehicles fatally injured pedestrians on public highways—representing only a fraction of the nearly 6,000 pedestrians killed on US roads in 2016. The report reviews the past 10 years of data on highway deaths; describes previous NTSB investigations related to pedestrian safety, including the 15 fatal pedestrian crashes as well as studies of the effects of speed and alcohol on highway crashes; summarizes the issues raised during the public forum; and makes 11 recommendations for improving pedestrian safety. The report considers vehicle-based countermeasures, such as improved headlights, vehicle designs that reduce injuries to pedestrians, and collision avoidance systems. It also reviews infrastructure designs that make streets safer for pedestrians. The report emphasizes that better data are needed—especially on pedestrian activity (exposure data) and on the types and outcomes of crashes involving pedestrians—to improve federal, state, and local decision-making related to pedestrian safety. As a result of its special investigation, the NTSB made safety recommendations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Recommendation: TO THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION: Work with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to develop and implement a plan for the states to combine highway crash data and injury health data, with the goal of producing a national database of pedestrian injuries and fatalities.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Open - Acceptable Response
Mode: Highway
Location: Washington, DC
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA15SS005
Accident Reports:
Report #: SIR-18-03
Accident Date: 8/24/2015
Issue Date: 10/23/2018
Date Closed:
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Open - Acceptable Response)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Date: 3/20/2019
Response: We are pleased that you are working on multiple projects that align with the intent of this recommendation—to improve the availability and quality of pedestrian injury and fatality data. We note that your Data Linkage initiative, including the two 2018 Data Linkage Learning Labs and follow-on webinars, is providing technical assistance and resources to states to make linking nonfatal motor vehicle crash data standard practice. We commend your efforts to create a complementary data link to NHTSA’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System data, which should allow states to better assess and manage risk for both fatal and injury accidents. We further note that, building on your 2013 research partnership with NHTSA, you are releasing guidance for states that explains how to initiate or expand programs to link nonfatal motor vehicle crash data. In addition, you have begun research on older-driver crash injury data, the results of which could be applied in the future to other road-user populations. My staff queried you on your level of involvement because Safety Recommendation H 18 49 asks you to collaborate with NHTSA. We were pleased to learn from Mr. Nesbit that, although NHTSA is not directly involved in the current projects, you are keeping the agency apprised of your work. My staff also requested further information about the learning labs and the possibility of participating in a future webinar, and we look forward to future discussions on these topics. Because your efforts show positive action toward addressing this recommendation, pending development of the recommended action plan, which should lead to a national pedestrian injury and fatality database, Safety Recommendation H-18-49 is classified OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.

From: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
To: NTSB
Date: 11/1/2018
Response: -From Debra Houry, MD, MPH, Director, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Thank you for the opportunity to respond to the recommendation in “Pedestrian Safety: Special Investigation Report” that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) “work with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to develop and implement a plan for states to combine highway crash data and injury health data, with the goal of producing a national database of pedestrian injuries and fatalities (H-18-49).” CDC is currently actively engaged in developing and implementing a plan for states to combine traffic crash and injury health data. CDC’s Data Linkage initiative is providing technical assistance and resources to states to make non-fatal motor vehicle crash data linkage standard practice. By linking and then analyzing information from police crash reports linked with hospital admissions and discharge data, states can gain a more comprehensive understanding of the public health consequences of motor vehicle crashes, allowing for states to more effectively target interventions and prevention activities for all road users including pedestrians. These linked data would complement NHTSA’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which focuses on fatal motor vehicle crashes. CDC, in collaboration with the National Governors Association, convened two Data Linkage Learning Labs in 2018, bringing a total of eleven state teams together to make data linkage plans and discuss lessons learned and best practices for linking and analyzing linked crash-related data. Participating states expanded their capacity for data linkage, allowing them to more effectively target interventions and prevention activities. The states shared progress and outcomes via a series of webinars, including an upcoming webinar that is open to all fifty states. In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a joint study to increase knowledge about state data linkage systems, including NHTSA’s Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES). Twenty-five states with linkage programs integrating crash data with medical injury data were surveyed about their programs and nineteen participated in follow-up focus groups. The study also assessed State Traffic Record Assessments and other secondary sources. Assessment of the results of the data collections resulted in facilitators and barriers to successful linkage programs. The evaluation report is available at: https://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/linkage/index.html and includes a bibliography of over 140 papers and products that provide representation of the various types of identified products/outcomes that can be produced from data linkage. Building on this CDC/NHTSA evaluation, in 2019, CDC will release “Linked Information for Nonfatal Crash Surveillance (LINCS): A Guide for Integrating Motor Vehicle Crash Data to Keep Americans Safe on the Road,” a state guide to provide technical assistance to states to initiate or expand non-fatal motor vehicle crash data linkage activities. Linking and analyzing these data will enable states to have a more comprehensive understanding of the public health consequences of the three million non-fatal motor vehicle crash injuries every year, including risk and protective factors and medical outcomes and costs. In addition to this work, CDC has funded a multi-state research project, “Research Using Linked Data to Understand Motor Vehicle Injury Among Older Adults.” The purpose of this project is to determine the utility of linked data for identifying risk factors, protective factors, and outcomes of motor vehicle crashes among older adults compared with other age groups. This project is focused on older adults, for whom motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury-related deaths; however, lessons learned from this effort could be applied to other populations and to specific road users in the future. I hope this information is helpful, and thank you for all of the opportunities to collaborate on reducing the number of motor vehicle injuries.

From: NTSB
To: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Date: 10/23/2018
Response: The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an independent federal agency charged by Congress with investigating every civil aviation accident in the United States and significant accidents in other modes of transportation—railroad, highway, marine, and pipeline. We determine the probable cause of the accidents and issue safety recommendations aimed at preventing future accidents. In addition, we carry out special studies concerning transportation safety and coordinate the resources of the federal government and other organizations to provide assistance to victims and their family members affected by major transportation disasters. On September 25, 2018, the NTSB adopted its special investigation report Pedestrian Safety, NTSB/SIR-18/03. The details of the special investigation and the resulting safety recommendations may be found in the attached report, which can also be accessed at http://www.ntsb.gov. Among the Safety Recommendations is one issued to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be found on page 43 of the report. The NTSB is vitally interested in this recommendation because it is designed to prevent accidents and save lives. We would appreciate a response within 90 days, detailing the actions you have taken or intend to take to implement this recommendation. When replying, please refer to the safety recommendation by number. We encourage you to submit your response to correspondence@ntsb.gov. If it exceeds 20 megabytes, including attachments, please e-mail us at the same address for instructions. Please do not submit both an electronic copy and a hard copy of the same response.