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The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) adopted the safety study Introduction of Glass Cockpit Avionics into Light Aircraft on March 9, 2010.1 As a result of this study, the NTSB has issued six safety recommendations to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to address issues concerning the transition of light aircraft to the use of electronic primary flight displays (PFD) and how that change has affected the safety of light aircraft. Information supporting these recommendations is discussed in this letter and in the safety study. The NTSB would appreciate a response from you within 90 days addressing the actions you have taken or intend to take to implement our recommendations.
TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Incorporate training elements regarding electronic primary flight displays into your training materials and aeronautical knowledge requirements for all pilots.
Original recommendation transmittal letter:
Closed - Acceptable Action
Safety Study Plan
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status:
FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Personal Floatation Device
Safety Recommendation History
We note that the following FAA training documents have been revised and include EFD guidance: 1. Instrument Flying Handbook (FAA-H-808 3-15A). Revised in 2012. 2. Airman Certification Standards for Instrument Rating Airplane (FAA-S-ACS-8). Revised June 2016. 3. Airman Certification Standards for Private Pilot Airplane (FAA-S-ACS-6). Revised June 2016. 4. Practical Test Standards for Commercial Pilot Airplane (FAA-S-8081-12B). Current as of November 2011. 6. Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-3B). Revised in 2016. 7. Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (FAA-H-8083-25B). Revised in 2016. We believe that the EFD guidance in these training documents, along with your plan to update the documents in the future to address any changes in EFD technology, satisfy the intent of Safety Recommendation A-10-38, which is classified CLOSED—ACCEPTABLE ACTION.
-From Michael P. Huerta, Administrator: ln its February 1, 2011, letter. the Board requested that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provide copies of the training documents that it revised so that the Board could evaluate the updates. To address this recommendation, the FAA revised Chapter 8 of the Pilot Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge. specifically an entire section dedicated to electronic flight instruments. We also revised Chapter 6. Section II, of the Instrument Flying Handbook. This section is dedicated to attitude instrument flying using an Electronic Flight Display (EFD). The following is a list of FAA handbook and guidance material revised to include EFD guidance. We cited many of these items in our last response: here we include the status of the revisions to those documents and links to electronic versions of the material. l. Instrument Flying Handbook (F AA-H-808 3-l 5A). Revised in 2012. This can be found at the following Web site: http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/hand books manualsfaviation/media/FAA-H-8083-15B.pdf; 2. Airman Certification Standards for Instrument Rating Airplane (FAA-S-ACS-8, cited as FAA-S-808 14A in our letter dated June 22, 2010). Previously the Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards. Revised June 2016. This can be found at the following Web site: http://www.faa.gov/training_testing/testing/airmen/test_ standards/media/faa-s-808l-4e.pdf: 3. Airman Certification Standards for Private Pilot Airplane (F AA-S-ACS-6). Revised June 2016. This can be found at the following Web site: http://www.faa.gov/training_testing/testing/airmen/test_standards/pilot/media/FAA-S-8808-1Sa.pdf; 4. Practical Test Standards for Commercial Pilot Airplane (FAA-S-808 1-128). Current as or November 2011. This can be found at the following Web site: http://www.faa.gov/training_testing/testing/test_standards/media/FAA-S-808I-I2C.pdf: 5. Advanced Avionics Handbook (FAA-11-8083-6). Published in 2009. This can be found at the following Web site: http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/advanced_avionics_manual/media/F AA-1-1-8083-6.pdf; 6. Airplane flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-38. cited as f AA-H-8083-A in our letter dated June 22, 2010). Revised in 2016. This can be found at the following Web site: http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/airplane_handbook/media/airplane_tlying_handbook.pdf; and 7. Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (F AA-1-1-8083-258 , cited as FAA-H-25A in our June 22. 2010 latter). Revised in 20 16. This can be found at the following Web site: http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/phak/ media/pilot_handbook.pdf. The FAA believes the inclusion of EFD guidance in the above training docun1ents will give the flying community a base of knowledge on which to draw as pi lots progress in their training. We are constantly reviewing our guidance documents and looking to include new material that is relevant to the pilot community. Any future advances in EFD technology. or techniques surrounding those devices, will certainly warrant consideration for further updates of these publications. I believe the FAA has satisfactorily responded to this safety recommendation and consider our actions complete.
Our last update from the FAA regarding these recommendations was its June 22, 2010, letter. We are concerned that, although nearly 3 years have passed since then, we have received no additional information regarding the agency’s efforts to address these recommendations. Pending our timely receipt of such an update and completion of the recommended actions, Safety Recommendations A-10-36 and -37 remain classified "Open--Unacceptable Response", and Safety Recommendations A-10-38 and -39 are classified OPEN—UNACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.
The NTSB notes that the FAA has made revisions to handbook guidance regarding PFDs and is encouraged that the FAA plans to continue to make changes as necessary to fill the educational needs of pilot applicants due to advanced technologies. However, this material was discussed in our glass cockpit study and, although the continual revision process is responsive to this recommendation, the NTSB found that the guidance provided still lacks the specificity and detail necessary to fully address the problems identified in the study. Consequently, the NTSB does not agree with the FAA that its actions in response to this recommendation are complete, and we ask that the FAA provide copies of documents it is currently revising once revisions are complete so that we may evaluate the updates. Pending our review of these documents, Safety Recommendation A-10-38 is classified OPEN – ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.
MC# 2100244 - From J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator: The following is a list of FAA handbook guidance material that is in a continual revision process because of the advancements in avionics technology. 1. In 2008, the FAA reissued the Instrument Flying Handbook (FAA-H-808 3-15A). This change included adding entire sections on EFDs using graphics from several manufacturers. 2. In January 2010, Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards for Airplane, Helicopter, and Powered Lift was updated. This practical test standard (PTS) requires the applicant to exhibit adequate knowledge of the elements related to aircraft flight instrument system(s) and their operating characteristics. This includes electronic flight instrument displays (PFD, multi-function display (MFD)). The PTS also has a special emphasis on attitude instrument flying and emergency instrument procedures. This section continues to stress the importance of a pilot's ability to fly an airplane on back-up instruments should the PFD malfunction. It requires the demonstrations of a nonprecision instrument approach without the use of the primary flight instruments or electronic flight instrument display. We believe that the instrument rating practical test standard has incorporated electronic PFDs into the aeronautical knowledge requirement for an instrument rating. 3 The current Private Pilot Airplane (FAA-S-8081-14A) and Commercial Pilot Airplane (FAA-S-8081-12B) PTSs have evaluation elements relating to the specific avionics systems installed in the applicants aircraft. 4. Advanced Avionics Handbook (FAA-H-8083-6) was published in 2009. It was designed as a technical reference for pilots who operate aircraft with advanced avionics systems. 5. The Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-A) is scheduled for revision in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. The FAA will update the information to include glass cockpit avionics. 6. The Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (FAA-H-8083-25-A, 2008), Chapter 7, Flight Instruments, has a section on EFD's including malfunctions. This handbook is scheduled for revision in FY 2013. The FAA has made revisions to the handbook guidance and will continue to make changes as necessary to fill the educational needs of pilot applicants due to advanced technologies. I believe the FAA has effectively addressed this safety recommendation, and I consider our actions complete.
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