The crash was not survivable for the limousine driver.
Because lap/shoulder belts provide a greater level of occupant protection than lap belts, lap/shoulder belts should be installed as standard equipment for all passenger seating positions in limousines.
The non-original equipment manufacturer seats and lap belt systems in the modified portion of the passenger compartment, including their structural anchorage points, were not properly designed for occupant crash protection.
If seat belts on limousines are not readily assessible to the passengers, they are unlikely to be worn.
Extending New York’s mandatory seat belt use laws with primary enforcement to all vehicles, including for all limousine passengers in all seating positions, would decrease fatalities.
To the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration:
Require lap/shoulder belts for each passenger seating position on all new vehicles modified to be used as limousines. (H-19-14)
Require that seating systems installed in new vehicles modified to be used as limousines meet minimum performance standards to ensure their integrity during a crash. (H-19-15)
To the New York State Department of Transportation:
As an addition to your regular state inspection process, ensure that seat belts are functional and accessible in all limousines in the state equipped with passenger seat belts. (H-19-16)
To the National Limousine Association:
Educate member limousine operators on the life-saving benefits of proper seat belt use, and recommend that they develop methods to (1) ensure that seat belts are functional and accessible to the passengers and (2) encourage passengers to use them. (H-19-17)
The NTSB reiterates Safety Recommendation H-15-42 to the state of New York:
Enact legislation that provides for primary enforcement of a mandatory seat belt use law for all vehicle seating positions equipped with a passenger restraint system. (H-15-42)