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MWL Related Safety Recommendations
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 MWL Related Safety Recommendations

The table below provides a listing of open NTSB recommendations most strongly associated with the 10 Most Wanted List (MWL) issues. The recommendations are grouped by each MWL issue. In addition to the recommendation number, classification status and recommendation text, each recommendation listed also contains a hyperlink to the NTSB’s safety recommendation database where additional detail about that specific recommendation can be found.​


Reduce Fatigue-Related Accid​​ents​

Rec # Status Text  Link Requires or possibly requires regulatory action
A-13-001 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Establish duty-time regulations for maintenance personnel working under [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 121, 135, 145, and 91 subpart K that take into consideration factors such as start time, workload, shift changes, circadian rhythms, adequate rest time, and other factors shown by recent research, scientific evidence, and current industry experience to affect maintenance crew alertness. (Supersedes Safety Recommendation A-97-71) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-13-001 Y
A-13-003 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require that personnel performing maintenance or inspections under [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 121, 135, 145, and 91 subpart K receive initial and recurrent training on human factors affecting maintenance that includes a review of the causes of human error, including fatigue, its effects on performance, and actions individuals can take to prevent the development of fatigue. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-13-003 Y
A-14-087 Open—Acceptable Response TO UPS (UNITED PARCEL SERVICE) AIRLINES: Work with the Independent Pilots Association to conduct an independent review of the fatigue event reporting system to determine the program’s effectiveness as a nonpunitive mechanism to identify and effectively address the reported fatigue issues. Based on the findings, implement changes to enhance the safety effectiveness of the program. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-14-087  
A-94-194 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION:  Revise the Federal Aviation Regulations contained in [Title] 14 CFR Part 135 to require that pilot flight time accumulated in all company flying conducted after revenue operations-such as training and check flights, ferry flights and repositioning flights-be included in the crewmember's total flight time accrued during revenue operations. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-94-194 Y
A-95-113 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION:  Finalize the review of current flight and duty time regulations and revise the regulations, as necessary, within 1 year to ensure that flight and duty time limitations take into consideration research findings in fatigue and sleep issues.  The new regulations should prohibit air carriers from assigning flightcrews to flights conducted under [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 91 unless the flightcrews meet the flight and duty time limitations of 14 CFR Part 121 or other appropriate regulations. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-95-113 Y
H-08-013 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION:  Develop and implement a plan to deploy technologies in commercial vehicles to reduce the occurrence of fatigue-related accidents. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-08-013  
H-09-009 Open—Await Response TO THE AMERICAN BUS ASSOCIATION AND THE UNITED MOTORCOACH ASSOCIATION:  Inform your members through Web sites, newsletters, and conferences of the circumstances of the Mexican Hat, Utah, accident. The prepared information should encourage charter operators to develop written contingency plans for each charter to ensure that trip planning is in place in the event of driver fatigue, incapacitation, or illness or in the event of trip delays necessitating replacement  drivers to avoid hours-of-service violations and inform drivers of their trip’s contingency plans. The prepared information should also provide information about the risks of operating in rural areas without wireless telephone coverage and advise members to carry mobile cellular amplifiers or satellite-based devices to communicate emergency events. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-09-009  
H-09-010 Open—Acceptable Response TO ARROW STAGE LINES: Develop written contingency plans for each charter to ensure that trip planning is in place in the event of driver fatigue, incapacitation, or illness or in the event of trip delays necessitating replacement drivers to avoid hours-of-service violations and inform drivers of their trip’s contingency plans. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-09-010  
H-09-015 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Implement a program to identify commercial drivers at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea and require that those drivers provide evidence through the medical certification process of having been appropriately evaluated and, if treatment is needed, effectively treated for that disorder before being granted unrestricted medical certification. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-09-015  
H-09-016 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION:  Develop and disseminate guidance for commercial drivers, employers, and physicians regarding the identification and treatment of individuals at high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), emphasizing that drivers who have OSA that is effectively treated are routinely approved for continued medical certification. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-09-016  
H-10-009 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Require all motor carriers to adopt a fatigue management program based on the North American Fatigue Management Program guidelines for the management of fatigue in a motor carrier operating environment. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-10-009 Y
H-12-029 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Establish an ongoing program to monitor, evaluate, report on, and continuously improve fatigue management programs implemented by motor carriers to identify, mitigate, and continuously reduce fatigue-related risks for drivers. (This safety recommendation supersedes Safety Recommendation H-08-14.) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-029  
H-12-030 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Incorporate scientifically based fatigue mitigation strategies into the hours-of-service regulations for passenger-carrying drivers who operate during the nighttime window of circadian low. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-030 Y
H-15-022 Open—Acceptable Response TO WAL-MART STORES, INC. (ORIGINALLY ISSUED TO WALMART TRANSPORTATION LLC): Develop and implement a fatigue management program based on the North American Fatigue Management Program guidelines. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-022  
M-11-020 Open—Acceptable Response TO 24 STATES, GUAM, AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO: Require local pilot oversight organizations that have not already done so to implement fatigue mitigation and prevention programs that (1) regularly inform mariners of the hazards of fatigue and effective strategies to prevent it and (2) promulgate hours of service rules that prevent fatigue resulting from extended hours of service, insufficient rest within a 24-hour period, and disruption of circadian rhythms. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-11-020  
M-16-004 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD: Address the risks associated with watch stander fatigue by implementing Commandant Instruction 3500.2, Crew Endurance Management, issued on March 30, 2006, in all operational units. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-16-004  
R-06-003 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Require transit agencies, through the system safety program and hazard management process if necessary, to ensure that the time off between daily tours of duty, including regular and overtime assignments, allows train operators to obtain at least 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-06-003 Y
R-09-009 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Develop and disseminate guidance for operators, transit authorities, and physicians regarding the identification and treatment of individuals at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep disorders. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-009  
R-09-010 Open—Acceptable Response TO 46 US RAIL TRANSIT AGENCIES: Review your medical history and physical examination forms and modify them as necessary to ensure that they elicit specific information about any previous diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea or other sleep disorders and about the presence of specific risk factors for such disorders. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-010  
R-09-011 Open—Acceptable Response TO 46 US RAIL TRANSIT AGENCIES: Establish a program to identify operators who are at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea or other sleep disorders and require that such operators be appropriately
 evaluated and treated.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-011  
R-12-016 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require railroads to medically screen employees in safety-sensitive positions for sleep apnea and other sleep disorders. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-016 Y
R-12-017 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Establish an ongoing program to monitor, evaluate, report on, and continuously improve fatigue management systems implemented by operating railroads to identify, mitigate, and continuously reduce fatigue-related risks for personnel performing safety-critical tasks, with particular emphasis on biomathematical models of fatigue.   https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-017  
R-12-018 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Conduct research on new and existing methods that can identify fatigue and mitigate performance decrements associated with fatigue in on-duty train crews. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-018  
R-12-019 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require the implementation of methods that can identify fatigue and mitigate performance decrements associated with fatigue in on-duty train crews that are identified or developed in response to Safety Recommendation R-12-18. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-019 Y
R-12-025 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE BNSF RAILWAY: Require all employees and managers who perform or supervise safety-critical tasks to complete fatigue training on an annual basis and document when they have received this training. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-025  
R-12-026 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE BNSF RAILWAY: Medically screen employees in safety-sensitive positions for sleep apnea and other sleep disorders. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-026  
R-13-021 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Develop medical certification regulations for employees in safety-sensitive positions that include, at a minimum, (1) a complete medical history that includes specific screening for sleep disorders, a review of current medications, and a thorough physical examination, (2) standardization of testing protocols across the industry, and (3) centralized oversight of certification decisions for employees who fail initial testing; and consider requiring that medical examinations be performed by those with specific training and certification in evaluating medication use and health issues related to occupational safety on railroads. [This recommendation supersedes Safety Recommendations R-02-24 through -26.] https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-021 Y
R-14-062 Open—Acceptable Response TO METRO-NORTH RAILROAD:  Revise your medical protocols for employees in safety-sensitive positions to include specific protocols on sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-062  
R-14-064 Open—Acceptable Response TO METRO-NORTH RAILROAD: Develop and implement protocols to routinely screen and fully evaluate your safety-sensitive employees for sleep disorders and ensure that such disorders are adequately addressed if diagnosed. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-064  
R-14-065 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE LONG ISLAND RAILROAD: Develop and implement protocols to routinely screen and fully evaluate your safety-sensitive employees for sleep disorders and ensure that such disorders are adequately addressed, if diagnosed. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-065  
R-14-071 Open—Await Response TO THE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN RAILROADS, THE AMERICAN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ASSOCIATION, THE AMERICAN SHORT LINE AND REGIONAL RAILROAD ASSOCIATION, THE BROTHERHOOD OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS, AND THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SHEET METAL, AIR, RAIL AND TRANSPORTATION WORKERS: Collaborate to develop a model national labor agreement that supports effective programs for addressing sleep disorders and other medical conditions among safety-sensitive train operating personnel. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-071  
R-14-072 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE TO THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS: Enhance initial and ongoing training to ensure that Board-certified physicians in Internal Medicine can successfully identify the risk factors for, evaluate, and effectively treat obstructive sleep apnea among their patients. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-072  
R-14-073 Open—Await Response TO THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FAMILY PHYSICIANS: Enhance initial and ongoing training to ensure that Board-certified physicians in Family Medicine can successfully identify risk factors for, evaluate, and effectively treat obstructive sleep apnea among their patients.  https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-073  
R-15-018 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Develop a work scheduling program for rail transit agencies that incorporates fatigue science—such as validated biomathematical models of fatigue—and provides for the management of personnel fatigue risks, and implement the program through the state safety oversight program. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-018  
R-15-019 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Establish (through the state safety oversight program) scientifically based hours-of-service regulations that set limits on hours of service, provide predictable work and rest schedules, and consider circadian rhythms and human sleep and rest requirements. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-019 Y
R-15-020 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Identify the necessary training and certification needs for work schedulers in the rail transit industry and require the transit agencies—through the state safety oversight program—to provide additional training or certification for their work schedulers. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-020  
R-15-021 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Require (through the state safety oversight program) rail transit employees who develop work schedules to complete initial and recurrent training based on current fatigue science to identify and mitigate work schedule risks that contribute to operator fatigue. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-021 Y
R-16-043 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require freight railroads to use validated biomathematical fatigue models, similar to the models used by passenger railroads, to develop work schedules that do not pose an excessive risk of fatigue. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-16-043 Y
R-16-045 Open—Await Response TO BNSF RAILWAY, CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAY, CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY, CSX TRANSPORTATION, KANSAS CITY SOUTHERN RAILWAY, NORFOLK SOUTHERN RAILWAY, INTERCITY RAILROADS, AND COMMUTER RAILROADS: Review and revise as necessary your medical rules, standards, or protocols to ensure you are informed of any diagnosed sleep disorders that employees in safety-sensitive positions must report and, when an employee makes such a report, perform periodic evaluations to ensure the condition is appropriately treated and the employee is fit for duty. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-16-045  
R-16-046 Open—Await Response TO CLASS I RAILROADS: Revise your scheduling practices for train crews and implement science-based tools, such as validated biomathematical models, to reduce start time variability that results in irregular work-rest cycles and fatigue. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-16-046  
R-16-047 Open—Acceptable Response TO UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD: Revise your medical rules to add any diagnosed sleep disorder to the list of medical conditions that employees in safety-sensitive positions must report and, when an employee makes such a report, perform periodic evaluations to ensure the condition is appropriately treated and the employee is fit for duty. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-16-047  

Strengthen Occupant Protection

Rec # Status Text  Link Requires or possibly requires regulatory action
A-14-044 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Conduct research that examines the injury potential to occupants in accidents with significant lateral forces, and if the research deems it necessary, implement regulations to mitigate the hazards identified. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-14-044 Y
A-14-045 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Conduct research to identify the mechanism that produces high thoracic spinal injuries in commercial aviation accidents, and if the research deems it necessary, implement regulations to mitigate the hazards identified. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-14-045 Y
A-16-008 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Once Airbus Helicopters completes development of a retrofit kit to incorporate a crash-resistant fuel system into AS350B3e and similarly designed variants, prioritize its approval to accelerate its availability to operators. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-008  
A-16-009 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Issue a special airworthiness information bulletin (SAIB) informing all owners and operators of AS350 B3e and similarly designed variants of the availability of a crash-resistant fuel system retrofit kit and urging that it be installed as soon as practicable. To encourage helicopter owners and operators to retrofit existing helicopters with a crash-resistant fuel system, the SAIB should also discuss the helicopter accidents cited in this report. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-009  
A-16-010 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Issue a special airworthiness information bulletin that is periodically updated to inform all helicopter owners and operators about available modifications to improve fuel system crashworthiness and urge that they be installed as soon as practicable. To encourage helicopter owners and operators to retrofit existing 2 helicopters with a crash-resistant fuel system, the SAIB should also discuss the helicopter accidents cited in this report. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-010  
A-16-011 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE EUROPEAN AVIATION SAFETY AGENCY: Once Airbus Helicopters completes development of a retrofit kit to incorporate a crash-resistant fuel system into AS350 B3e and similarly designed variants, prioritize its approval to accelerate its availability to operators. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-011  
A-17-012 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE ASSOCIATION OF CRITICAL CARE TRANSPORT: In collaboration with the Association of Air Medical Services and the Air Medical Operators Association, establish a working group to develop and distribute guidelines, for those who purchase, lease, or contract for helicopters, regarding the equipment and systems that would enhance the helicopters’ crashworthiness, including, at a minimum, a crash-resistant fuel system and energy-absorbing seats. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-17-012  
A-17-013 Open—Await Response TO THE ASSOCIATION OF AIR MEDICAL SERVICES AND AIR MEDICAL OPERATORS ASSOCIATION: Work with the Association of Critical Care Transport to establish a working group to develop and distribute guidelines, for those who purchase, lease, or contract for helicopters, regarding the equipment and systems that would enhance the helicopters’ crashworthiness, including, at a minimum, a crash-resistant fuel system and energy-absorbing seats. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-17-013  
H-04-010 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CHILD CARE TRANSPORTATION OVERSIGHT AGENCIES: Implement an oversight program for child care transportation that includes the following elements: A requirement that occupants wear age-appropriate restraints at all times. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-04-010  
H-04-016 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN: As part of your accreditation program, establish a transportation safety accreditation that requires applicants to implement the following elements:
  • Use of vehicles built to school bus standards or of multifunction school activity buses;  
  • A regular vehicle maintenance and inspection program;  
  • A requirement that occupants wear age-appropriate restraints at all times; 
  • A requirement that drivers receive a criminal background check and have a medical examination to determine fitness to drive; 
  • Preemployment, random, postaccident, and "for cause" drug testing for all child care transportation providers and the prohibition of anyone who tests positive for drugs from transporting children;  
  • Review by an oversight agency of periodic driver background checks, medical examinations, and drug test results; and  
  • A requirement that child care vehicles be labeled with the child care center's and oversight agency's names and phone numbers.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-04-016  
H-12-022 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ASSOCIATION: Evaluate the effects of seat spacing and armrests as factors for potential occupant injury, and if safer spacing or armrest configurations are identified, develop and implement appropriate guidelines.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-022  
H-13-032 Open—Await Response TO THE STATES OF CALIFORNIA, FLORIDA, LOUISIANA, NEW JERSEY, NEW YORK, AND TEXAS: Develop: (1) a handout for your school districts to distribute annually to students and parents about the importance of the proper use of all types of passenger seat belts on school buses, including the potential harm of not wearing a seat belt or wearing one but not adjusting it properly; and (2) training procedures for schools to follow during the twice yearly emergency drills to show students how to wear their seat belts properly. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-032  
H-13-033 Open—Await Response TO THE STATES OF CALIFORNIA, FLORIDA, LOUISIANA, NEW JERSEY, NEW YORK, AND TEXAS: Upon publication of the National School Transportation Specifications and Procedures document, revise the handout and training procedures developed in Safety Recommendation H-13-32 to align with the national procedures as appropriate. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-033  
H-13-035 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF STATE DIRECTORS OF PUPIL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR PUPIL TRANSPORTATION, NATIONAL SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION ASSOCIATION, SCHOOL BUS MANUFACTURERS TECHNICAL COUNCIL, AND NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL, SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION SECTION: Develop guidelines and include them in the next update of the National School Transportation Specifications and Procedures to assist schools in training bus drivers, students, and parents on the importance and proper use of school bus seat belts, including manual lap belts, adjustable lap and shoulder belts, and flexible seating systems. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-035  
H-13-036 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF STATE DIRECTORS OF PUPIL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR PUPIL TRANSPORTATION, AND NATIONAL SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION ASSOCIATION: Provide your members with educational materials on lap and shoulder belts providing the highest level of protection for school bus passengers, and advise states or school districts to consider this added safety benefit when purchasing seat belt-equipped school buses. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-036  
H-13-037 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE SCHOOL BUS MANUFACTURERS TECHNICAL COUNCIL: Develop a recommended practice for establishing and safeguarding the structural integrity of the entire school bus seating and restraint system, including the seat pan attachment to the seat frame, in severe crashes—in particular, those involving lateral impacts with vehicles of large mass. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-037  
H-15-015 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ASSOCIATION: Update your website guidance to include information on the mandated three-point restraints effective November 2016 for all new over-the-road buses and for other than over-the-road buses with a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 11,793 kilograms (26,000 pounds).

https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-015  
H-15-020 Open—Await Response TO THE NATIONAL LIMOUSINE ASSOCIATION: Develop and distribute guidelines to your member operators urging them, during pretrip safety briefings, to (1) direct passengers to use seat belts where required by law and strongly encourage passengers to use seat belts where not required by law, and (2) encourage passengers to use properly adjusted head restraints. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-020  
H-15-042 Open—Await Response TO THE FIFTY STATES, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AND PUERTO RICO: Enact legislation that provides for primary enforcement of a mandatory seat belt use law for all vehicle seating positions equipped with a passenger restraint system. (Safety Recommendation H-15-042 supersedes Safety Recommendation H-97-2) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-042  
H-17-001 Open—Await Response TO MOTOR COACH INDUSTRIES INTERNATIONAL, INC.: Evaluate and, if appropriate, modify the driver and passenger floor structure design on new motorcoaches to prevent driver seat separation during crashes. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-17-001  
H-17-008 Open—Await Response TO THE AMERICAN BUS ASSOCIATION AND THE UNITED MOTORCOACH ASSOCIATION: Encourage member passenger-carrying companies to (1) establish procedures to ensure that the seat belts on all buses are regularly inspected to maintain their functionality and accessibility, and (2) provide pretrip safety briefings emphasizing the benefits of seat belt use. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-17-008  
H-17-011 Open—Initial Response Received TO GREYHOUND LINES, INC.: Establish procedures to ensure that the seat belts on all buses are regularly inspected to maintain their functionality and accessibility. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-17-011  
H-17-012 Open—Initial Response Received TO GREYHOUND LINES, INC.: Provide pretrip safety briefings at all stops prior to departure when taking on new passengers, which describe the use of the emergency exits and the benefits of wearing seat belts. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-17-012  
H-96-014 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE 50 STATES, THE 5 US TERRITORIES, AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Review existing laws and enact legislation, if needed, that would: ensure that children up to 8 years old are required by the state's mandatory child restraint use law to use child restraint systems and booster seats. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-96-014  
H-99-049 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Expand your research on current advanced glazing to include its applicability to motorcoach occupant ejection prevention, and revise window glazing requirements for newly manufactured motorcoaches based on the results of this research. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-99-049  
H-99-050 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: In 2 years, develop performance standards for motorcoach roof strength that provide maximum survival space for all seating positions and that take into account current typical motorcoach window dimensions. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-99-050  
H-99-051 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Once performance standards have been developed for motorcoach roof strength, require newly manufactured motorcoaches to meet those standards. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-99-051 Y
M-16-026 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD: Amend Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular 1-01 to ensure that (1) amphibious passenger vehicle (APV) operators tell passengers that seat belts must not be worn while the vessel/vehicle is operated in the water and (2) before the APV enters the water or departs the dock, the master or other crewmember visually checks that each passenger has unbuckled his or her seat belt. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-16-026  
M-16-027 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD: Distribute a safety alert on amphibious passenger vehicle operations that addresses the role of risk assessment to mitigate driver distraction, as well as the need to tell passengers to remove seat belts before waterborne operations begin. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-16-027  
M-16-028 Open—Await Response TO THE PASSENGER VESSEL ASSOCIATION: Notify all your amphibious passenger vehicle (APV) operator members of the importance of the following: (1) learning the lessons from the Seattle, Washington, and Boston, Massachusetts, crashes; (2) completing proper maintenance and service bulletin repairs; (3) using the pretrip safety orientation to tell passengers of APVs equipped with passenger seat belts to unbuckle their belts before the APV begins any marine operations; (4) conducting a visual inspection to ensure that passengers have unbuckled their seat belts prior to water entry; (5) reducing the risk of driver distraction by having a tour guide conduct each tour; (6) managing risk in tour operations by addressing such factors as driver distraction, route planning, vehicle characteristics, traffic density, and vehicle speed; and (7) conducting operations according to Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular 1-01 guidance and US Coast Guard safety alerts. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-16-028  
R-06-006 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Develop minimum crashworthiness standards to prevent the telescoping of transit railcars in collisions and establish a timetable for removing equipment that cannot be modified to meet the new standards. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-06-006 Y
R-09-003 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require that emergency exits on new and remanufactured locomotive cabs provide for rapid egress by cab occupants and rapid entry by emergency responders. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-003 Y
R-10-020 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN TRANSIT AUTHORITY: Remove all 1000-series railcars as soon as possible and replace them with cars that have crashworthiness collision protection at least comparable to the 6000-series railcars. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-10-020  
R-12-021 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Revise Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 229 to ensure the protection of the occupants of isolated locomotive operating cabs in the event of a collision. Make the revision applicable to all locomotives, including the existing fleet and those newly constructed, rebuilt, refurbished, and overhauled, unless the cab will never be occupied. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-021 Y
R-12-022 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Revise Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 229 to require crashworthiness performance validation for all new locomotive designs under conditions expected in a collision. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-022 Y
R-12-040 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Once the side impact crashworthiness standards are developed in Safety Recommendation R-12-39, revise [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations 238.217, “Side Structure,” to require that new passenger railcars be built to these standards. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-040 Y
R-12-041 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require that passenger railcar doors be designed to prevent fire and smoke from traveling between railcars. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-041 Y
R-14-074 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Develop a performance standard to ensure that windows (e.g., glazing, gaskets, and any retention hardware) are retained in the window opening structure during an accident and incorporate the standard into [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 238.221 and 49 CFR 238.421 to require that passenger railcars meet this standard. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-074 Y
R-15-001 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Revise Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 238.213 to require the existing forward-end corner post strength requirements for the back-end corner posts of passenger railcars. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-001 Y
R-15-003 Open—Await Response TO METRO-NORTH RAILROAD: Replace the Grade 5 mounting bolts in the M-8 passenger railcar fleet with stronger bolts to ensure that the railcars comply with Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations 238.219. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-003  
R-16-035 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Conduct research to evaluate the causes of passenger injuries in passenger railcar derailments and overturns and evaluate potential methods for mitigating those injuries, such as installing seat belts in railcars and securing potential projectiles https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-16-035  
R-16-036 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: When the research specified in Safety Recommendation R-16-35 identifies safety improvements, use the findings to develop occupant protection standards for passenger railcars to mitigate passenger injuries likely to occur during derailments and overturns. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-16-036 Y
H-10-012 Open-Unacceptable Response  TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: To improve highway vehicle crash compatibility, develop performance standards for front underride protection systems for trucks with gross vehicle weight ratings over 10,000 pounds. [This recommendation supersedes Safety Recommendation H-06-16] https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-10-012  
H-10-013 Open-Unacceptable Response  TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: After establishing performance standards for front underride protection systems for trucks with gross vehicle weight ratings over 10,000 pounds, require that all such newly manufactured trucks be equipped with front underride protection systems meeting the performance standards. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-10-013 Y
H-13-013 Open-Unacceptable Response  TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Develop performance standards for side underride protection systems for single-unit trucks with gross vehicle weight ratings over 10,000 pounds. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-013  
H-13-014 Open-Unacceptable Response  TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Once the performance standards requested in H-13-13 have been developed, require newly manufactured single-unit trucks with gross vehicle weight ratings over 10,000 pounds to be equipped with side underride protection systems meeting the performance standards. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-014 Y
H-13-015 Open-Acceptable Response  TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Develop performance standards for rear underride protection systems for single-unit trucks with gross vehicle weight ratings over 10,000 pounds. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-015  
H-13-016 Open-Acceptable Response  TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Once the performance standards requested in H-13-15 have been developed, require newly manufactured single-unit trucks with gross vehicle weight ratings over 10,000 pounds to be equipped with rear underride protection systems meeting the performance standards. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-016 Y
H-14-002 Open-Response Received  TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Require that newly manufactured trailers with gross vehicle weight ratings over 10,000 pounds be equipped with side underride protection systems that will reduce underride and injuries to passenger vehicle occupants. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-14-002 Y
H-14-003 Open-Response Received  TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Require that newly manufactured truck-tractors with gross vehicle weight ratings over 26,000 pounds be equipped with side underride protection systems that will reduce underride and injuries to passenger vehicle occupants. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-14-003 Y
H-14-004 Open-Response Received  TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Revise requirements for rear underride protection systems for newly manufactured trailers with gross vehicle weight ratings over 10,000 pounds to ensure that they provide adequate protection of passenger vehicle occupants from fatalities and serious injuries resulting from full-width and offset trailer rear impacts. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-14-004 Y

Expand Recorder Use to Enhance Safety

Rec # Status Text  Link Requires or possibly requires regulatory action
A-09-090 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require helicopter emergency medical services operators to install flight data recording devices and establish a structured flight data monitoring program that reviews all available data sources to identify deviations from established norms and procedures and other potential safety issues. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-09-090 Y
A-09-099 Open—Acceptable Response TO 40 PUBLIC OPERATORS OF EMS HELICOPTERS: Install flight data recording devices and establish a structured flight data monitoring program that incorporates routine reviews of all available sources of information to identify deviations from established norms and procedures and other potential safety issues. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-09-099  
A-10-029 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 121, 135, and 91K operators to (1) routinely download and analyze all available sources of safety information, as part of their flight operational quality assurance program, to identify deviations from established norms and procedures; (2) provide appropriate protections to ensure the confidentiality of the deidentified aggregate data; and (3) ensure that this information is used for safety-related and not punitive purposes. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-10-029 Y
A-10-168 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FOREST SERVICE: Require all contracted transport-category helicopters to be equipped with a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder or a cockpit image recorder with the capability of recording cockpit audio, crew communications, and aircraft parametric data. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-10-168 Y
A-12-034 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Revise Federal Aviation Administration Order 8130.2G and related guidance or regulations, as necessary, to include provisions for the use of electronic data recordings from electronic flight displays, engine instruments, or other recording devices in support of Phase I flight testing of experimental amateur-built aircraft to document the aircraft performance data and operating envelope and develop an accurate and complete aircraft flight manual. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-12-034 Y
A-12-041 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT ASSOCIATION: Work with your membership, aircraft kit manufacturers, and avionics manufacturers to develop standards for the recording of data in electronic flight displays, engine instruments, or other recording devices to be used in support of flight tests or continued airworthiness of experimental amateur-built aircraft. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-12-041  
A-13-012 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require the installation of a crash-resistant flight recorder system on all newly manufactured turbine-powered, nonexperimental, nonrestricted-category aircraft that are not equipped with a flight data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder and are operating under [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 91, 121, or 135. The crash-resistant flight recorder system should record cockpit audio and images with a view of the cockpit environment to include as much of the outside view as possible, and parametric data per aircraft and system installation, all as specified in Technical Standard Order C197, “Information Collection and Monitoring Systems.” https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-13-012 Y
A-13-013 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require all existing turbine-powered, nonexperimental, nonrestricted-category aircraft that are not equipped with a flight data recorder or cockpit voice recorder and are operating under [title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 91, 121, or 135 to be retrofitted with a crash-resistant flight recorder system. The crash-resistant flight recorder system should record cockpit audio and images with a view of the cockpit environment to include as much of the outside view as possible, and parametric data per aircraft and system installation, all as specified in Technical Standard Order C197, “Information Collection and Monitoring Systems.” https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-13-013 Y
A-14-124 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require Boeing 787 operators to incorporate guidance about the enhanced airborne flight recorder stale data issue in their maintenance manuals to prevent stale data from being used for maintenance activities or flight recorder maintenance. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-14-124  
A-14-125 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Evaluate whether the recording of stale data by the Boeing 787 enhanced airborne flight recorder, including whether the data are specifically identified as stale, impacts the certification of the recording system regarding the ranges, accuracies, and sampling intervals specified in [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 121 Appendix M, and take appropriate measures to correct any problems found. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-14-125  
A-14-126 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require Boeing to improve the quality of (1) the enhanced airborne flight recorder radio/hot microphone channels by using the maximum available dynamic range of the individual channels and (2) the cockpit area microphone airborne recordings by increasing the crew conversation signals over the ambient background noise. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-14-126  
A-15-001 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require that all aircraft used in extended overwater operations and operating under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (1) Part 121 or (2) Part 135 that are required to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, be equipped with a tamper-resistant method to broadcast to a ground station sufficient information to establish the location where an aircraft terminates flight as the result of an accident within 6 nautical miles of the point of impact. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-15-001 Y
A-15-002 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require that all aircraft used in extended overwater operations and operating under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (1) Part 121 or (2) Part 135 that are required to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, be equipped with an airframe low frequency underwater locating device that will function for at least 90 days and that can be detected by equipment available on military, search and rescue, and salvage assets commonly used to search for and recover wreckage. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-15-002 Y
A-15-003 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require that all newly manufactured aircraft used in extended overwater operations and operating under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (1) Part 121 or (2) Part 135 that are required to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, be equipped with a means to recover, at a minimum, mandatory flight data parameters; the means of recovery should not require underwater retrieval. Data should be captured from a triggering event until the end of the flight and for as long a time period before the triggering event as possible. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-15-003 Y
A-15-004 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Concurrent with the implementation of Safety Recommendations A-15-1 and A-15-3, coordinate with other international regulatory authorities and the International Civil Aviation Organization to harmonize the implementation of the requirements outlined in Safety Recommendations A-15-1 and A-15-3. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-15-004  
A-15-007 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require that all existing aircraft operated under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121 or 135 and currently required to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder be retrofitted with a crash-protected cockpit image recording system compliant with Technical Standard Order TSO-C176a, “Cockpit Image Recorder Equipment,” TSO-C176a or equivalent. The cockpit image recorder should be equipped with an independent power source consistent with that required for cockpit voice recorders in 14 CFR 25.1457. (Supersedes Safety Recommendation A-00-30) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-15-007 Y
A-15-008 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require that all newly manufactured aircraft operated under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121 or 135 and required to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder also be equipped with a crash-protected cockpit image recording system compliant with Technical Standard Order TSO-C176a, “Cockpit Image Recorder Equipment,” or equivalent. The cockpit image recorder should be equipped with an independent power source consistent with that required for cockpit voice recorders in 14 CFR 25.1457. (Supersedes Safety Recommendation A-00-31)
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-15-008 Y
A-16-034 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require all [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 135 operators to install flight data recording devices capable of supporting a flight data monitoring program. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-034 Y
A-16-035 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: After the action in Safety Recommendation A-16-34 is completed, require all [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 135 operators to establish a structured flight data monitoring program that reviews all available data sources to identify deviations from established norms and procedures and other potential safety issues. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-035 Y
A-16-042 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Review the problems with the quality of the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) data in this accident to (1) determine why the problems were not detected and corrected before the accident, despite the requirements in Federal Aviation Administration Order 8900.1 and the guidance in Safety Alert for Operators 06019, and (2) determine if the procedures in Advisory Circular (AC) 20-186 would have ensured that the CVR problems were identified and corrected before the accident, and if not, revise AC 20-186 to ensure that such problems will be identified and corrected. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-042  
H-02-035 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS AND THE SOCIETY OF AUTOMATIVE ENGINEERS:  Work together, as part of your initiative to establish on-board vehicle recorder standards, to develop standards for brake and transmission electronic control units that require those units to store a full history of electronic fault codes that are time stamped using a recognized clock synchronized with other on-board event data recording devices. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-02-035  
H-10-007 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Require that all buses above 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating be equipped with on-board recording systems that: (1) record vehicle parameters, including, at minimum, lateral acceleration, longitudinal acceleration, vertical acceleration, heading, vehicle speed, engine speed, driver’s seat belt status, braking input, steering input, gear selection, turn signal status (left/right), brake light status (on/off), head/tail light status (on/off), passenger door status (open/closed), emergency door status (open/closed), hazard light status (on/off), brake system status (normal/warning), and flashing red light status (on/off; school buses only); (2) record status of additional seat belts, airbag deployment criteria, airbag deployment time, and airbag deployment energy; (3) record data at a sampling rate sufficient to define vehicle dynamics and be capable of preserving data in the event of a vehicle crash or an electrical power loss; and (4) are mounted to the bus body, not the chassis, to ensure recording of the necessary data to define bus body motion. (This recommendation supersedes Safety Recommendation H-99-53) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-10-007 Y
H-10-010 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Require all heavy commercial vehicles to be equipped with video event recorders that capture data in connection with the driver and the outside environment and roadway in the event of a crash or sudden deceleration event. The device should create recordings that are easily accessible for review when conducting efficiency testing and systemwide performance-monitoring programs. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-10-010 Y
H-10-011 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Require motor carriers to review and use video event recorder information in conjunction with other performance data to verify that driver actions are in accordance with company and regulatory rules and procedures essential to safety. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-10-011 Y
H-10-014 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Develop and implement minimum performance standards for event data recorders for trucks with gross vehicle weight ratings over 10,000 pounds that address, at a minimum, the following elements: data parameters to be recorded; data sampling rates; duration of recorded event; standardized or universal data imaging interface; data storage format; and device and data survivability for crush, impact, fluid exposure and immersion, and thermal exposure. The standards should also require that the event data recorder be capable of capturing and preserving data in the case of a power interruption or loss, and of accommodating future requirements and technological advances, such as flashable and/or reprogrammable operating system software and/or firmware updates. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-10-014  
H-10-015 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: After establishing performance standards for event data recorders for trucks with gross vehicle weight ratings over 10,000 pounds, require that all such vehicles be equipped with event data recorders meeting the standards. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-10-015 Y
H-15-001 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Incorporate into your existing crash database systems, with appropriate access controls, standardized procedures for collecting and using pertinent video recordings, injury information, and crash data from video-equipped buses, consistent with privacy regulations and policies. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-001  
H-15-002 Open—Await Response TO THE AMERICAN BUS ASSOCIATION, UNITED MOTORCOACH ASSOCIATION, AMERICAN TRUCKING ASSOCIATIONS, AMERICAN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ASSOCIATION, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR PUPIL TRANSPORTATION, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF STATE DIRECTORS OF PUPIL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES, AND NATIONAL SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION ASSOCIATION: Encourage your members to ensure that any onboard video system in their vehicles provides visibility of the driver and of each occupant seating location, visibility forward of the vehicle, optimized frame rate, and low-light recording capability. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-002  
H-15-003 Open—Await Response TO ANGELTRAX BUS VIDEO, APOLLO VIDEO TECHNOLOGY, EYE3DATA, FORTRESS SYSTEMS INTERNATIONAL INC., IDRIVE INC., LYTX INC. (DRIVECAM), MOBILEYE INC., PLANET HALO INC., PRO-VISION VIDEO SYSTEMS, RADIO ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES INC., ROSCO VISION SYSTEMS, SAFETY VISION LLC, SEON DESIGN INC., SMARTDRIVE SYSTEMS INC., AND 247 SECURITY INC.: Develop written guidance for the initial installation and long-term maintenance of onboard video systems, and publish that guidance on your websites and in future owner’s manuals. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-003  
H-99-054 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Develop and implement, in cooperation with other government agencies and industry, standards for on-board recording of bus crash data that address, at a minimum, parameters to be recorded, data sampling rates, duration of recording, interface configurations, data storage format, incorporation of fleet management tools, fluid immersion survivability, impact shock survivability, crush and penetration survivability, fire survivability, independent power supply, and ability to accommodate future requirements and technological advances. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-99-054 Y
M-14-003 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD: Require installation of voyage data recorders that meet the International Maritime Organization’s performance standard for voyage data recorders on new ferry vessels subject to [Title] 46 Code of Federal Regulations subchapters H and K. (Supersedes Safety Recommendations M-10-005 through -006) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-14-003 Y
M-14-004 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD: Require installation of voyage data recorders that meet the International Maritime Organization’s performance standard for simplified voyage data recorders on existing ferry vessels subject to [Title] 46 Code of Federal Regulations subchapters H and K. (Supersedes Safety Recommendations M-10-005 through -006)
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-14-004 Y
M-14-005 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD: Develop a US voyage data recorder standard for ferry vessels subject to [Title] 46 Code of Federal Regulations subchapter T and require the installation of such equipment where technically feasible. (Supersedes Safety Recommendations M-10-005 through -006) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-14-005 Y
R-01-028 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE MARYLAND TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Install, on all your light rail vehicles, independent event recorders that record and retain the most recent 48 hours of data, store data in nonvolatile memory, and have a back-up power source that would enable the entire recording system to function if electric power is lost to the car. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-01-028  
R-10-001 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require the installation, in all controlling locomotive cabs and cab car operating compartments, of crash- and fire-protected inward- and outward-facing audio and image recorders capable of providing recordings to verify that train crew actions are in accordance with rules and procedures that are essential to safety as well as train operating conditions. The devices should have a minimum 12-hour continuous recording capability with recordings that are easily accessible for review, with appropriate limitations on public release, for the investigation of accidents or for use by management in carrying out efficiency testing and systemwide performance monitoring programs. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-10-001 Y
R-10-002 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require that railroads regularly review and use in-cab audio and image recordings (with appropriate limitations on public release), in conjunction with other performance data, to verify that train crew actions are in accordance with rules and procedures that are essential to safety. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-10-002 Y
R-12-024 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN RAILROADS: Develop a standard that specifies the use of suitable crash-protected memory modules for all new and existing installations of on-board video and audio recorders. The memory modules should meet or exceed the survivability criteria specified in Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations 229.135 Appendix D, Table 2. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-024  
R-13-022 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require all information captured by any required recorder to also be recorded in another location remote from the lead locomotive(s), to minimize the likelihood of the information’s being unrecoverable as a result of an accident. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-022 Y
R-13-026 Open—Acceptable Response TO ALL CLASS I RAILROADS: Install in all controlling locomotive cabs and cab car operating compartments crash-and fire-protected inward-and outward-facing audio and image recorders. The devices should have a minimum 12-hour continuous recording capability. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-026  
R-14-008 Open—Acceptable Response TO METRO NORTH RAILROAD: Require the installation, in all controlling locomotive cabs and cab car operating compartments of crash-and fire-protected inward-and outward-facing audio and image recorders capable of providing recordings to verify that train crew actions are in accordance with rules and procedures that are essential to safety as well as train operating conditions. The devices should have a minimum 12-hour continuous recording capability with recordings that are easily accessible for review, with appropriate limitations on public release, for the investigation of accidents or for use by management in carrying out efficiency testing and systemwide performance monitoring programs. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-008  
R-14-009 Open—Acceptable Response TO METRO NORTH RAILROAD: Regularly review and use in-cab audio and image recordings in conjunction with other performance data, to verify that train crew actions are in accordance with rules and procedures that are essential to safety. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-009  
R-15-023 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Require that new or rehabilitated rail transit vehicles be equipped with event recorders meeting Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1482.1 for rail transit vehicle event recorders.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-023 Y
R-15-028 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL RAILROAD PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTRAK): Install, in all controlling locomotive cabs and cab car operating compartments, crash-and fire-protected inward-and outward-facing audio and image recorders capable of providing recordings to verify that train crew actions are in accordance with rules and procedures that are essential to safety as well as train operating conditions. The devices should have a minimum 12-hour continuous recording capability with recordings that are easily accessible for review, with appropriate limitations on public release, for the investigation of accidents or for use by management in carrying out efficiency testing and system wide performance monitoring programs. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-028  
R-15-029 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL RAILROAD PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTRAK): Semi-annually, issue a public report detailing Amtrak’s progress in installing crash-and fire-protected inward-and outward-facing audio and image recorders. The report should include the number of locomotives and cab car operating compartments that have been equipped with the recorders, as well as the number of locomotives and cab car operating compartments in Amtrak’s fleet that still lack those devices. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-029  
R-15-030 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL RAILROAD PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTRAK): Regularly review and use in-cab audio and image recordings in conjunction with other performance data to verify crew member actions are in accordance with rules and procedures that are essential to safety. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-030  

Prevent Loss of Control in General Aviation

Rec # Status Text  Link Requires or possibly requires regulatory action
A-04-056 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION:  Modify [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 25 to include a certification standard that will ensure safe handling qualities in the yaw axis throughout the flight envelope, including limits for rudder pedal sensitivity. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-04-056 Y
A-05-027 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION:  Develop a means to identify pilots whose overall performance history indicates that they are at future risk of accident involvement, and develop a program to reduce risk for those pilots. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-05-027  
A-10-036 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Revise airman knowledge tests to include questions regarding electronic flight and navigation displays, including normal operations, limitations, and the interpretation of malfunctions and aircraft attitudes. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-10-036  
A-10-038 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Incorporate training elements regarding electronic primary flight displays into your training materials and aeronautical knowledge requirements for all pilots. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-10-038  
A-12-040 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT ASSOCIATION: Identify and apply incentives to encourage owners, builders, and pilots of experimental amateur-built aircraft to complete flight test training, such as that available in the Experimental Aircraft Association’s Test Flying and Developing Pilot Operating Handbook, prior to conducting flight tests of experimental amateur-built aircraft. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-12-040  
A-12-043 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT ASSOCIATION: Complete planned action to create a coalition of kit manufacturers, type clubs, and pilot and owner groups and (1) develop transition training resources and (2) identify and apply incentives to encourage both builders of experimental amateur-built aircraft and purchasers of used experimental amateur-built aircraft to complete the training that is developed. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-12-043  
A-16-018 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Develop, in collaboration with your internal offices that investigate aviation accidents and incidents and also organizations familiar with the challenges facing pilots confronting an emergency situation, and require recurrent national training for air traffic controllers, including scenario-based training, to instruct them on identifying and responding to emergency situations to include the following:
  1. recognizing emergencies, 
  2. determining what help is needed, and 
  3. taking actions that help pilots safely resolve the situation.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-018 Y
A-16-019 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION:  In collaboration with your internal offices that investigate aviation accidents and incidents and also organizations familiar with the challenges facing pilots confronting an emergency situation, annually revise the required training described in Safety Recommendation A-16-18 at the national level to ensure that the training is current and relevant and includes lessons learned from recent events throughout the National Airspace System that address best practices for helping pilots who are experiencing problems such as (but not limited to) the following:
  1. partial or total power loss and fuel emergencies;
  2. control difficulties;
  3. impaired navigational capability;
  4. loss of flight instruments or other critical aircraft systems (including attitude information);
  5. encounters with hazardous meteorological conditions;
  6. inadvertent flight into instrument meteorological conditions by visual flight rules pilots; and
  7. pilot medical issues, such as hypoxia.

https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-019 Y
A-17-035 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Implement ways to provide effective terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS) protections while mitigating nuisance alerts for single-engine airplanes operated under [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 135 that frequently operate at altitudes below their respective TAWS class design alerting threshold. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-17-035  

Require Medical Fitness​

Rec # Status Text  Link Requires or possibly requires regulatory action
A-04-047 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Based on the results of the research requested in Safety Recommendation A-04-46, develop a standard battery of tests to be performed at least once on each applicant for a Class 1 or 2 medical certificate that would prevent applicants with color vision deficiencies that could impair their ability to perform color-related critical aviation tasks from being certificated without limitations. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-04-047  
A-07-043 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION:  Require that all airmen clinically diagnosed with substance dependence (including dependence on alcohol), as defined in [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations 67.107(a)(4)(ii), 67.207(a)(4)(ii), and 67.307(a)(4)(ii), who are medically certified by the FAA subsequent to such diagnosis, are followed under guidelines for special issuance of medical certificates for the period that they hold such certificates. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-07-043 Y
A-14-093 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require pilots who are exempt from medical certification requirements to periodically report to you their status as an active pilot and to provide a summary of recent flight hours. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-14-093 Y
A-15-011 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Restrict all pilots with medical conditions that could affect their g-tolerance from performing aerobatic maneuvers or air racing at events requiring a certificate of waiver or authorization for an aviation event. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-15-011  
A-16-015 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Develop and disseminate educational information for pilots regarding the December 26, 2013, aircraft accident in Fresno, California, and the risks cataracts may pose to flight safety including a discussion of degraded vision at night, and encourage pilots with cataracts to communicate with their eye care professionals regarding diagnosis and treatment options. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-015  
A-16-016 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Develop and disseminate educational information for aviation medical examiners regarding the December 26, 2013, aircraft accident in Fresno, California; the risks cataracts may pose to flight safety including a discussion of degraded vision at night; and referral of pilots with cataracts to eye care professionals.

https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-016  
A-16-017 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION: Include in your educational resources for pilots information about cataracts and the risks they pose to flight safety including a discussion of degraded vision at night, and encourage pilots with cataracts to communicate with their eye care professionals regarding diagnosis and treatment options. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-017  
H-01-019 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Develop a comprehensive medical oversight program for interstate commercial drivers that contains the following program elements:  Medical certification regulations are updated periodically to permit trained examiners to clearly determine whether drivers with common medical conditions should be issued a medical certificate. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-01-019 Y
H-01-020 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION:  Develop a comprehensive medical oversight program for interstate commercial drivers that contains the following program elements:  Individuals performing examinations have specific guidance and a readily identifiable source of information for questions on such examinations. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-01-020  
H-04-038 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: In cooperation with the American Medical Association and the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, develop a procedure to periodically collect, evaluate, and report data, on a State and national basis, regarding the extent to which medical conditions contribute to the cause of accidents. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-04-038  
H-04-040 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: In cooperation with the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators: Determine the most effective licensing countermeasures to reduce the risks posed by medically impaired drivers. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-04-040  
H-04-041 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION:  Once the most effective reporting methods and licensing countermeasures have been determined, develop a model comprehensive medical oversight program for States to use to oversee medically impaired drivers. Such a program should include, as a minimum:

a. Methods to provide information to the public on resource availability and on the medical oversight laws and procedures to assist medically high-risk drivers.
b. Plans and strategies to simplify and maximize reporting of potential driver medical impairment to medical evaluation units of State driver licensing organizations by law enforcement officers, health care providers, emergency services providers, and the public.
c. Methods to capture all cases of motor vehicle incidents or accidents potentially related to driver medical impairment.
d. Standardized methods of driver evaluation for potentially medically impaired drivers incorporating medical records
review, systematic testing, and on-road appraisals, as needed.
e. Methods for timely and appropriate restriction of driving privileges for drivers found to have medical conditions or treatments that impair their ability to safely operate a motor vehicle.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-04-041  
H-09-015 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Implement a program to identify commercial drivers at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea and require that those drivers provide evidence through the medical certification process of having been appropriately evaluated and, if treatment is needed, effectively treated for that disorder before being granted unrestricted medical certification. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-09-015  
H-09-016 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION:  Develop and disseminate guidance for commercial drivers, employers, and physicians regarding the identification and treatment of individuals at high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), emphasizing that drivers who have OSA that is effectively treated are routinely approved for continued medical certification. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-09-016  
H-16-007 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE NATIONAL SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION ASSOCIATION, THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR PUPIL TRANSPORTATION, AND THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF STATE DIRECTORS OF PUPIL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES: Inform school bus drivers of the impact their health may have on the safe transportation of school children, of their responsibility to accurately and completely report their health history and medications, and of the legal consequences of dishonesty on the medical examination report. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-16-007  
M-09-004 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD:  Require mariners to report to the Coast Guard, in a timely manner, any substantive changes in their medical status or medication use that occur between required medical evaluations. (Supersedes M-05-5) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-09-004 Y
R-00-002 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Develop, then periodically publish, an easy-to-understand source of information for train operating crewmembers on the hazards of using specific medications when performing their duties. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-00-002  
R-09-009 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Develop and disseminate guidance for operators, transit authorities, and physicians regarding the identification and treatment of individuals at high risk
 for obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep disorders.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-009  
R-09-010 Open—Acceptable Response TO 46 US RAIL TRANSIT AGENCIES: Review your medical history and physical examination forms and modify them as necessary to ensure that they elicit specific information about any previous diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea or other sleep disorders and about the presence of specific risk factors for such disorders. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-010  
R-09-011 Open—Acceptable Response TO 46 US RAIL TRANSIT AGENCIES: Establish a program to identify operators who are at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea or other sleep disorders and require that such operators be appropriately
 evaluated and treated.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-011  
R-12-016 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require railroads to medically screen employees in safety-sensitive positions for sleep apnea and other sleep disorders. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-016 Y
R-12-026 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE BNSF RAILWAY: Medically screen employees in safety-sensitive positions for sleep apnea and other sleep disorders. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-026  
R-13-018 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Determine what constitutes a reliable, valid, and comparable field test procedure for assessing the color discrimination capabilities of employees in safety-sensitive positions. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-018  
R-13-019 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: When you have made the determination in Safety Recommendation R-13-18, require railroads to use a reliable, valid, and comparable field test procedure for assessing the color discrimination capabilities of employees in safety-sensitive positions. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-019 Y
R-13-020 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require more frequent medical certification exams for employees in safety-sensitive positions who have chronic conditions with the potential to deteriorate sufficiently to impair safe job performance. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-020 Y
R-13-021 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Develop medical certification regulations for employees in safety-sensitive positions that include, at a minimum, (1) a complete medical history that includes specific screening for sleep disorders, a review of current medications, and a thorough physical examination, (2) standardization of testing protocols across the industry, and (3) centralized oversight of certification decisions for employees who fail initial testing; and consider requiring that medical examinations be performed by those with specific training and certification in evaluating medication use and health issues related to occupational safety on railroads. (This recommendation supersedes Safety Recommendations R-02-24 through -26.) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-021 Y
R-13-030 Open—Acceptable Response TO UNION PACIFIC: Audit your medical records to ensure that all personnel in safety-sensitive positions have adequate documentation of appropriate medical testing. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-030  
R-13-031 Open—Acceptable Response TO UNION PACIFIC: Replace your color vision field test with a test that has established and acceptable levels of reliability, validity, and comparability to ensure that certified employees in safety-sensitive positions have sufficient color discrimination to perform safely. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-031  
R-13-032 Open—Acceptable Response TO UNION PACIFIC: Until you have implemented a validated, reliable, and comparable color vision field test, perform a safety analysis and undertake measures to manage the risk created by the use of an inadequate test. Such measures might include, but are not limited to, restricting crewmembers who have failed primary color vision testing to yard assignments or unsignaled territory. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-032  
R-14-062 Open—Acceptable Response TO METRO-NORTH RAILROAD: Revise your medical protocols for employees in safety-sensitive positions to include specific protocols on sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-062  
R-14-064 Open—Acceptable Response TO METRO-NORTH RAILROAD: Develop and implement protocols to routinely screen and fully evaluate your safety-sensitive employees for sleep disorders and ensure that such disorders are adequately addressed if diagnosed. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-064  
R-14-065 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE LONG ISLAND RAILROAD: Develop and implement protocols to routinely screen and fully evaluate your safety-sensitive employees for sleep disorders and ensure that such disorders are adequately addressed, if diagnosed. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-065  
R-14-071 Open—Await Response TO THE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN RAILROADS, THE AMERICAN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ASSOCIATION, THE AMERICAN SHORT LINE AND REGIONAL RAILROAD ASSOCIATION, THE BROTHERHOOD OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS, AND THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SHEET METAL, AIR, RAIL AND TRANSPORTATION WORKERS: Collaborate to develop a model national labor agreement that supports effective programs for addressing sleep disorders and other medical conditions among safety-sensitive train operating personnel. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-071  
R-14-072 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE TO THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS: Enhance initial and ongoing training to ensure that Board-certified physicians in Internal Medicine can successfully identify the risk factors for, evaluate, and effectively treat obstructive sleep apnea among their patients. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-072  
R-14-073 Open—Await Response TO THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FAMILY PHYSICIANS: Enhance initial and ongoing training to ensure that Board-certified physicians in Family Medicine can successfully identify risk factors for, evaluate, and effectively treat obstructive sleep apnea among their patients. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-073  
R-15-035 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Enhance your medical standards by identifying a list of medical conditions that disqualify employees for safety-sensitive positions because of the conditions’ potential for negatively affecting rail safety. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-035 Y
R-15-036 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Enhance your medical standards by identifying a list of medical conditions that disqualify employees for safety-sensitive positions because of the conditions’ potential for negatively affecting rail safety.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-036 Y
R-15-037 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Once disqualifying medical conditions and medications have been identified, develop specific criteria (such as standards for medical test results) that may allow employees who have been disqualified but have been determined by a subsequent, individualized assessment to pose no increased danger to rail safety to obtain a medical certification. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-037  
R-16-044 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Develop and enforce medical standards that railroad employees in safety-sensitive positions diagnosed with sleep disorders must meet to be considered fit for duty. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-16-044 Y
R-16-045 Open—Await Response TO BNSF RAILWAY, CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAY, CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY, CSX TRANSPORTATION, KANSAS CITY SOUTHERN RAILWAY, NORFOLK SOUTHERN RAILWAY, INTERCITY RAILROADS, AND COMMUTER RAILROADS: Review and revise as necessary your medical rules, standards, or protocols to ensure you are informed of any diagnosed sleep disorders that employees in safety-sensitive positions must report and, when an employee makes such a report, perform periodic evaluations to ensure the condition is appropriately treated and the employee is fit for duty. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-16-045  
R-16-047 Open—Acceptable Response TO UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD: Revise your medical rules to add any diagnosed sleep disorder to the list of medical conditions that employees in safety-sensitive positions must report and, when an employee makes such a report, perform periodic evaluations to ensure the condition is appropriately treated and the employee is fit for duty. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-16-047  

Improve Rail Transit Safety Oversight

Rec # Status Text  Link Requires or possibly requires regulatory action
R-06-003 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Require transit agencies, through the system safety program and hazard management process if necessary, to ensure that the time off between daily tours of duty, including regular and overtime assignments, allows train operators to obtain at least 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-06-003 Y
R-09-007 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Advise all rail transit operators that have train control systems capable of monitoring train movements to determine whether their systems have adequate safety redundancy if losses in train detection occur. If a system is susceptible to single point failures, urge and verify that corrective action is taken to add redundancy by evaluating track occupancy data on a real-time basis to automatically generate alerts and speed restrictions to prevent train collisions.  (Urgent) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-007  
R-09-009 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Develop and disseminate guidance for operators, transit authorities, and physicians regarding the identification and treatment of individuals at high risk

for obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep disorders.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-009  
R-09-010 Open—Acceptable Response TO 46 US RAIL TRANSIT AGENCIES: Review your medical history and physical examination forms and modify them as necessary to ensure that they elicit specific information about any previous diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea or other sleep disorders and about the presence of specific risk factors for such disorders. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-010  
R-09-011 Open—Acceptable Response TO 46 US RAIL TRANSIT AGENCIES: Establish a program to identify operators who are at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea or other sleep disorders and require that such operators be appropriately
 evaluated and treated.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-011  
R-10-005 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION:  Seek authority similar to Federal Railroad Administration regulations (Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations [Part] 219.207) to require that transit agencies obtain toxicological specimens from covered transit employees and contractors who are fatally injured as a result of an on-duty accident. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-10-005 Y
R-11-003 Open—Await Response TO THE 50 STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Obtain the statutory authority to provide safety oversight of all fixed guideway transportation systems that operate within your jurisdiction, regardless of their funding authorization or the date they began operation. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-11-003  
R-12-034 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Issue guidelines to advise transit agencies and state oversight agencies on how to effectively implement, oversee, and audit the requirements of [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations section 659.19(r) using industry best practices, industry voluntary standards, and appropriate elements from 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part214, Subpart C—Roadway Worker Protection. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-034  
R-12-035 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Emphasize the effective implementation and oversight of [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations section 659.19(r) as part of your safety oversight program audits. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-035  
R-14-039 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Once the action specified in Safety Recommendation R-14-38 is completed, update the state safety oversight program to ensure that rail transit systems are meeting the safety requirements for roadway workers. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-039  
R-14-040 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Establish a national inspection program that specifically includes roadway worker activities. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-040  
R-14-041 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Revise Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 659 to require all federally funded rail transit properties to comply with 29 CFR Parts 1904, 1910, and 1926. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-041 Y
R-14-057 Open—Await Response TO METRO-NORTH RAILROAD: Establish and implement a system to collect and analyze operational data to identify and mitigate adverse safety trends. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-057  
R-14-058 Open—Await Response TO METRO-NORTH RAILROAD: Require, as part of your risk management program, that representatives from all your divisions and labor organizations (1) regularly review safety and operational data from all divisions to identify safety issues and trends and (2) share the results across divisions. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-058  
R-14-060 Open—Await Response TO METRO-NORTH RAILROAD: Develop and implement a robust internal audit and oversight program, in coordination with your safety risk management process, to ensure that all employees and managers comply with your established safety procedures. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-060  
R-14-061 Open—Await Response TO METRO-NORTH RAILROAD:  Develop and implement a comprehensive training program for your employees on how to conduct effective internal auditing, operational testing, safety risk management analysis, and corrective action implementation. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-061  
R-14-066 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY: Require representatives from your operating divisions to regularly review safety and operational data from all divisions to identify safety issues and trends and share the results across your operating properties. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-066  
R-14-067 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY: Establish a program to systematically evaluate deficiencies identified on one Metropolitan Transportation Authority property, and determine the applicability of safety mitigations to other Metropolitan Transportation Authority properties. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-067  
R-14-068 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY: Develop an oversight and tracking process to ensure that the recommendations from the various investigations and reviews of Metro-North Railroad are coordinated, addressed, and resolved at all Metropolitan Transportation Authority properties. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-068  
R-15-018 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Develop a work scheduling program for rail transit agencies that incorporates fatigue science—such as validated biomathematical models of fatigue—and provides for the management of personnel fatigue risks, and implement the program through the state safety oversight program. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-018  
R-15-019 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Establish (through the state safety oversight program) scientifically based hours-of-service regulations that set limits on hours of service, provide predictable work and rest schedules, and consider circadian rhythms and human sleep and rest requirements. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-019 Y
R-15-020 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Identify the necessary training and certification needs for work schedulers in the rail transit industry and require the transit agencies—through the state safety oversight program—to provide additional training or certification for their work schedulers. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-020  
R-15-021 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Require (through the state safety oversight program) rail transit employees who develop work schedules to complete initial and recurrent training based on current fatigue science to identify and mitigate work schedule risks that contribute to operator fatigue. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-021 Y
R-15-022 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Require rail transit agencies to implement transmission-based train control systems that prevent train collisions. (Supersedes Safety Recommendation R-09-008) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-022 Y
R-15-031 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION: Seek an amendment to Title 45 United States Code section 1104(3) to list the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority as a commuter authority, thus authorizing the Federal Railroad Administration to exercise regulatory oversight of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority’s rail system. (Urgent) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-031 Y
R-15-032 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION: After Title 45 United States Code section 1104(3) is amended to include the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, direct the Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration to develop and implement a plan to transition the oversight of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority’s rail system to the Federal Railroad Administration within 6 months. (Urgent) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-032  
R-17-004 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Utilize your authority under Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations 670.25, and issue a general directive that would require all state safety oversight agencies to direct rail transit agencies to periodically test the performance of all of their rail transit vehicle braking systems to detect potential latent system failures. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-17-004  

Eliminate Distractions

Rec # Status Text  Link Requires or possibly requires regulatory action
A-13-014 Open—Acceptable Response TO AIR METHODS CORPORATION: Expand your policy on portable electronic devices to prohibit their nonoperational use during safety-critical ground activities, such as flight planning and preflight inspection, as well as in flight. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-13-014  
H-03-005 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Determine the magnitude and impact of driver-controlled, in-vehicle distractions, including the use of interactive wireless communication devices, on highway safety and report your findings to the US Congress and the States. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-03-005  
H-03-009 Open—Acceptable Response TO 34 STATES: Add driver distraction codes, including codes for interactive wireless communication device use, to your traffic accident investigation forms. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-03-009  
H-06-029 Open—Await Response TO 6 MOTORCOACH INDUSTRY, PUBLIC BUS, AND SCHOOL BUS ASSOCIATIONS AND 3 UNIONS: Develop formal policies prohibiting cellular telephone use by commercial driver’s license holders with a passenger-carrying or school bus endorsement, while driving under the authority of that endorsement, except in emergencies. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-06-029  
H-11-039 Open—Await Response TO THE 50 STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: (1) Ban the nonemergency use of portable electronic devices (other than those designed to support the driving task) for all drivers; (2) use the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration model of high visibility enforcement to support these bans; and (3) implement targeted communication campaigns to inform motorists of the new law and enforcement, and to warn them of the dangers associated with the nonemergency use of portable electronic devices while driving. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-11-039  
H-11-047 Open—Await Response TO CTIA-THE WIRELESS ASSOCIATION AND THE CONSUMER ELECTRONICS ASSOCIATION: Encourage the development of technology features that disable the functions of portable electronic devices within reach of the driver when a vehicle is in motion; these technology features should include the ability to permit emergency use of the device while the vehicle is in motion and have the capability of identifying occupant seating position so as not to interfere with use of the device by passengers. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-11-047  
H-14-013 Open—Await Response TO THE FIFTY STATES, THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO: Ban the nonemergency use by pilot/escort vehicle drivers of portable electronic devices (other than those designed to support the pilot/escort vehicle driving task), except to communicate hazard-related information to the escorted vehicle. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-14-013  
H-14-026 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Modify Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 392.82 to prohibit any use of a hands-free portable electronic device by a commercial driver’s license holder while the driver is operating a commercial vehicle, except in emergencies. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-14-026 Y
M-16-027 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD: Distribute a safety alert on amphibious passenger vehicle operations that addresses the role of risk assessment to mitigate driver distraction, as well as the need to tell passengers to remove seat belts before waterborne operations begin. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-16-027  
M-16-028 Open—Await Response TO THE PASSENGER VESSEL ASSOCIATION: Notify all your amphibious passenger vehicle (APV) operator members of the importance of the following: (1) learning the lessons from the Seattle, Washington, and Boston, Massachusetts, crashes; (2) completing proper maintenance and service bulletin repairs; (3) using the pretrip safety orientation to tell passengers of APVs equipped with passenger seat belts to unbuckle their belts before the APV begins any marine operations; (4) conducting a visual inspection to ensure that passengers have unbuckled their seat belts prior to water entry; (5) reducing the risk of driver distraction by having a tour guide conduct each tour; (6) managing risk in tour operations by addressing such factors as driver distraction, route planning, vehicle characteristics, traffic density, and vehicle speed; and (7) conducting operations according to Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular 1-01 guidance and US Coast Guard safety alerts. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-16-028  
R-13-005 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Identify, and require railroads to use in locomotive cabs, technology-based solutions that detect the presence of signal-emitting portable electronic devices and that inform the railroad management about the detected devices in real time. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-005 Y
R-13-011 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAY COMPANY: Incorporate the use of handheld signal detection devices into your operational efficiency program on the use of portable electronic devices. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-011  

End Alcohol and Other Drug Impairment in Transportation

Rec # Status Text  Link  Requires or possibly requires regulatory action
A-07-043 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION:  Require that all airmen clinically diagnosed with substance dependence (including dependence on alcohol), as defined in [Title] 14 Code of Federal Regulations 67.107(a)(4)(ii), 67.207(a)(4)(ii), and 67.307(a)(4)(ii), who are medically certified by the FAA subsequent to such diagnosis, are followed under guidelines for special issuance of medical certificates for the period that they hold such certificates. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-07-043 Y
A-08-040 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Emphasize with principal operations inspectors the importance of conducting timely postaccident drug and alcohol testing. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-08-040  
A-14-092 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Develop, publicize, and periodically update information to educate pilots about the potentially impairing drugs identified in your toxicology test results of fatally injured pilots, and make pilots aware of less impairing alternative drugs if they are available. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-14-092  
A-14-093 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require pilots who are exempt from medical certification requirements to periodically report to you their status as an active pilot and to provide a summary of recent flight hours. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-14-093 Y
A-14-094 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Develop and distribute a clear policy regarding any marijuana use by airmen regardless of the type of flight operation.

https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-14-094  
A-14-095 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Conduct a study to assess the prevalence of over-the-counter, prescription, and illicit drug use among flying pilots not involved in accidents, and compare those results with findings from pilots who have died from aviation accidents to assess the safety risks of using those drugs while flying. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-14-095  
H-04-013 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CHILD CARE TRANSPORTATION OVERSIGHT AGENCIES:  Implement an oversight program for child care transportation that includes the following elements:  Review by an oversight agency of periodic driver background checks, medical examinations, and drug test results. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-04-013  
H-04-016 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN:  As part of your accreditation program, establish a transportation safety accreditation that requires applicants to implement the following elements:
  • Use of vehicles built to school bus standards or of multifunction school activity buses;  
  • A regular vehicle maintenance and inspection program;  
  • A requirement that occupants wear age-appropriate restraints at all times; 
  • A requirement that drivers receive a criminal background check and have a medical examination to determine fitness to drive; 
  • Preemployment, random, postaccident, and "for cause" drug testing for all child care transportation providers and the prohibition of anyone who tests positive for drugs from transporting children;  
  • Review by an oversight agency of periodic driver background checks, medical examinations, and drug test results; and  
  • A requirement that child care vehicles be labeled with the child care center's and oversight agency's names and phone numbers.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-04-016  
H-09-010 Open—Acceptable Response TO ARROW STAGE LINES: Develop written contingency plans for each charter to ensure that trip planning is in place in the event of driver fatigue, incapacitation, or illness or in the event of trip delays necessitating replacement drivers to avoid hours-of-service violations and inform drivers of their trip’s contingency plans. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-09-010  
H-12-032 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Develop and disseminate to the 50 states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia blood alcohol concentration testing and reporting guidelines based on the 2012 report State Blood Alcohol Concentration Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes: Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997–2009. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-032  
H-12-033 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Develop and disseminate to appropriate state officials a common standard of practice for drug toxicology testing, including (1) the circumstances under which tests should be conducted, (2) a minimum set of drugs for which to test, and (3) cutoff values for reporting the results. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-033  
H-12-034 Open—Await Response TO THE 45 STATES, THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO, AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, WHICH HAVE LOW REPORTING RATES FOR BAC TESTING: Increase your collection, documentation, and reporting of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) test results by taking the following actions, as needed, to improve testing and reporting rates: (1) enact legislation, (2) issue regulations, and (3) improve procedures used by law enforcement agencies or testing facilities. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-034  
H-12-035 Open—Await Response TO THE 45 STATES, THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO, AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, WHICH HAVE LOW REPORTING RATES FOR BAC TESTING: Once the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has developed the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting guidelines recommended in Safety Recommendation H-12-32, incorporate the guidelines into a statewide action plan to achieve BAC reporting rates of at least 80 percent of fatally injured drivers and at least 60 percent of drivers who survived fatal crashes. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-035  
H-12-036 Open—Await Response TO THE 50 STATES, THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO, AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Require law enforcement agencies to collect place of last drink (POLD) data as part of any arrest or accident investigation involving an alcohol-impaired driver. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-036  
H-12-037 Open—Await Response TO THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE AND THE NATIONAL SHERIFFS’ ASSOCIATION: Inform your members of the value of collecting place of last drink (POLD) data as part of any arrest or accident investigation involving an alcohol-impaired driver. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-037  
H-12-043 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Work with the Automotive Coalition for Traffic Safety, Inc., to accelerate widespread implementation of Driver Alcohol Detection System for Safety (DADSS) technology by (1) defining usability testing that will guide driver interface design and (2) implementing a communication program that will direct driver education and promote public acceptance. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-043   
H-12-045 Open—Await Response TO 33 STATES, THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO, AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Enact laws to require the use of alcohol ignition interlock devices for all individuals convicted of driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenses. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-045  
H-12-048 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE AUTOMOTIVE COALITION FOR TRAFFIC SAFETY: Work with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to accelerate widespread implementation of Driver Alcohol Detection System for Safety (DADSS) technology by (1) defining usability testing that will guide driver interface design and (2) implementing a communication program that will direct driver education and promote public acceptance. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-12-048  
H-13-001 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Seek legislative authority to award incentive grants for states to establish a per se blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit of 0.05 or lower for all drivers who are not already required to adhere to lower BAC limits. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-001 Y
H-13-004 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Develop and disseminate to the states best practices for driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-004  
H-13-005 Open—Await Response TO THE 50 US STATES AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Establish a per se blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit of 0.05 or lower for all drivers who are not already required to adhere to lower BAC limits. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-005  
H-13-006 Open—Await Response TO THE 50 STATES, THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Include in your impaired driving prevention plan or highway safety plan provisions for conducting high-visibility enforcement of impaired driving laws using passive alcohol-sensing technology during law enforcement contacts, such as routine traffic stops, saturation patrols, sobriety checkpoints, and accident scene responses. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-006  
H-13-007 Open—Await Response TO THE 50 STATES, THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO, AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Include in your impaired driving prevention plan or highway safety plan elements to target repeat offenders and reduce driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism; such elements should include measures to improve compliance with alcohol ignition interlock requirements; the plan should also provide a mechanism for regularly assessing the success of these efforts.  [This recommendation supersedes Safety Recommendation H-00-26.] https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-007  
H-13-008 Open—Await Response TO THE 50 STATES, THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO, AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Take the following steps to move toward zero deaths from impaired driving: (1) set specific and measurable targets for reducing impaired driving fatalities and injuries, (2) list these targets in your impaired driving prevention plan or highway safety plan, and (3) provide a mechanism for regularly assessing the success of implemented countermeasures and determining whether the targets have been met.  https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-008  
H-13-009 Open—Await Response TO THE 41 STATES THAT HAVE ADMINISTRATIVE LICENSE SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION LAWS AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Incorporate into your administrative license suspension or revocation laws a requirement that drivers arrested for driving while intoxicated (DWI) use an alcohol ignition interlock on their vehicle for a period of time before obtaining full license reinstatement.  https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-009  
H-13-010 Open—Await Response TO THE 10 STATES THAT DO NOT HAVE ADMINISTRATIVE LICENSE SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION LAWS AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO: Establish administrative license suspension or revocation laws that require drivers arrested for driving while intoxicated (DWI) to use an alcohol ignition interlock on their vehicle for a period of time before obtaining full license reinstatement.  https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-010  
H-15-038 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Determine the prevalence of commercial motor vehicle driver use of impairing substances, particularly synthetic cannabinoids, and develop a plan to reduce the use of such substances. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-038  
H-15-039 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Work with motor carrier industry stakeholders to develop a plan to aid motor carriers in addressing commercial motor vehicle driver use of impairing substances, particularly those not covered under current drug-testing regulations such as by promoting best practices by carriers, expanding impairment detection training and authority, and developing performance-based methods of evaluation.

https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-039  
H-15-043 Open—Await Response TO AMERICAN BUS ASSOCIATION, AMERICAN TRUCKING ASSOCIATIONS, COMMERCIAL VEHICLE SAFETY ALLIANCE, OWNER-OPERATOR INDEPENDENT DRIVERS ASSOCIATION, UNITED MOTORCOACH ASSOCIATION: Inform your members about the dangers of driver use of synthetic drugs and encourage them to take steps to prevent drivers from using these substances. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-043  
H-16-008 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Disseminate information to motor carriers about using hair testing as a method of detecting the use of controlled substances, under the appropriate circumstances. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-16-008  
I-14-001 Open—Await Response TO THE FIFTY STATES, THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO: Include in all state guidelines regarding prescribing controlled substances for pain a recommendation that health care providers discuss with patients the effect their medical condition and medication use may have on their ability to safely operate a vehicle in any mode of transportation. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=I-14-001  
I-14-002 Open—Await Response TO THE FIFTY STATES, THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO: Use existing newsletters or other routine forms of communication with licensed health care providers and pharmacists to highlight the importance of routinely discussing with patients the effect their diagnosed medical conditions or recommended drugs may have on their ability to safely operate a vehicle in any mode of transportation. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=I-14-002  
M-12-008 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD: Align your standards for postaccident toxicological testing of Coast Guard military personnel with the requirements specified in [Title] 46 Code of Federal Regulations 4.06-3. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-12-008  
M-12-009 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD: Align your standards for postaccident toxicological testing of Coast Guard civilian personnel, seeking appropriate legislative authority if necessary, with the requirements specified in [Title] 46 Code of Federal Regulations 4.06-3. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-12-009 Y
M-12-010 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD: Disseminate guidance within the Coast Guard so that commanding officers have unambiguous instruction detailing the requirements for timely drug and alcohol testing of Coast Guard military and civilian personnel whose work performance may be linked to a serious marine incident. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=M-12-010  
P-11-012 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Amend Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations 199.105 and [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations 199.225 to eliminate operator discretion with regard to testing of covered employees. The revised language should require drug and alcohol testing of each employee whose performance either contributed to the accident or cannot be completely discounted as a contributing factor to the accident. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=P-11-012 Y
R-00-002 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION:  Develop, then periodically publish, an easy-to-understand source of information for train operating crewmembers on the hazards of using specific medications when performing their duties. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-00-002  
R-00-003 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Establish and implement an educational program targeting train operating crewmembers that, at a minimum, ensures that all crewmembers are aware of the source of information described in R-00-2 regarding the hazards of using specific medications when performing their duties.

https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-00-003  
R-00-004 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION:  Establish, in coordination with the US Dept. of Transportation, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, the Federal Transit Administration, and the US Coast Guard, comprehensive toxicological testing requirements for an appropriate sample of fatal highway, railroad, transit, and marine accidents to ensure the identification of the role played by common prescription and over-the-counter medications.  Review and analyze the results of such testing at intervals not to exceed every 5 years. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-00-004 Y
R-01-017 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION:  Modify [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations 219.201(b) as necessary to ensure that the exemption from mandatory postaccident drug and alcohol testing for those involved in highway-rail grade crossing accidents does not apply to any railroad signal, maintenance, and other employees whose actions at or near a grade crossing involved in an accident may have contributed to the occurrence or severity of the accident. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-01-017 Y
R-08-007 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION:  Revise the definition of covered employee under [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 219 for purposes of Congressionally mandated alcohol and controlled substances testing programs to encompass all employees and agents performing safety-sensitive functions, as described in [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations 209.301 and 209.303. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-08-007 Y
R-10-005 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION:  Seek authority similar to Federal Railroad Administration regulations (Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations 219.207) to require that transit agencies obtain toxicological specimens from covered transit employees and contractors who are fatally injured as a result of an on-duty accident. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-10-005 Y
R-13-021 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Develop medical certification regulations for employees in safety-sensitive positions that include, at a minimum, (1) a complete medical history that includes specific screening for sleep disorders, a review of current medications, and a thorough physical examination, (2) standardization of testing protocols across the industry, and (3) centralized oversight of certification decisions for employees who fail initial testing; and consider requiring that medical examinations be performed by those with specific training and certification in evaluating medication use and health issues related to occupational safety on railroads. [This recommendation supersedes Safety Recommendations R-02-24 through -26.] https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-021 ​Y

Ensure the Safe Shipment of Hazardous Materials

Rec # Status Text  Link  Requires or possibly requires regulatory action
A-08-001 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION AND THE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: In collaboration with air carriers, manufacturers of lithium batteries and electronic devices, air travel associations, and other appropriate government and private organizations, establish a process to ensure wider, highly visible, and continuous dissemination of guidance and information to the air-traveling public, including flight crews, about the safe carriage of secondary (rechargeable) lithium batteries or electronic devices containing these batteries on board passenger aircraft. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-08-001  
A-08-002 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION AND THE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: In collaboration with air carriers, manufacturers of lithium batteries and electronic devices, air travel associations, and other appropriate government and private organizations, establish a process to periodically measure the effectiveness of your efforts to educate the air-traveling public, including flight crews, about the safe carriage of secondary (rechargeable) lithium batteries or electronic devices containing these batteries on board passenger aircraft. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-08-002  
A-12-068 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Develop fire detection system performance requirements for the early detection of fires originating within cargo containers and pallets and, once developed, implement the new requirements. (This safety recommendation supersedes Safety Recommendation A-07-98) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-12-068 Y
A-12-070 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Require the installation and use of active fire suppression systems in all aircraft cargo compartments or containers, or both, such that fires are not allowed to develop. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-12-070 Y
A-16-001 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTATION: Require that Class 3 flammable liquids and fully regulated Class 9 lithium batteries be physically segregated when stowed on board an aircraft such that packages containing these materials may not be placed on the same or adjacent pallets or ULDs. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-001 Y
A-16-002 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTATION: Establish maximum loading density requirements that restrict the quantities of Class 3 flammable hazardous materials or Class 9 lithium batteries stowed on a single pallet or ULD, or on a group of pallets or ULDs, within an aircraft such that cargo fires can be effectively managed by on-board fire suppression capabilities. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=A-16-002 Y
R-01-017 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION:  Modify [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations [Part] 219.201(b) as necessary to ensure that the exemption from mandatory postaccident drug and alcohol testing for those involved in highway-rail grade crossing accidents does not apply to any railroad signal, maintenance, and other employees whose actions at or near a grade crossing involved in an accident may have contributed to the occurrence or severity of the accident. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-01-017 Y
R-04-007 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION:  Develop and implement tank car design-specific fracture toughness standards, such as a minimum average Charpy value, for steels and other materials of construction for pressure tank cars used for the transportation of U.S. Department of Transportation class 2 hazardous materials, including those in "low temperature" service. The performance criteria must apply to the material orientation with the minimum impact resistance and take into account the entire range of operating temperatures of the tank car. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-04-007 Y
R-07-002 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Assist the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration in developing regulations to require that railroads immediately provide to emergency responders accurate, real-time information regarding the identity and location of all hazardous materials on a train. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-07-002 Y
R-12-007 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Require that all newly manufactured and existing tank cars authorized for transportation of hazardous materials have center sill or draft sill attachment designs that conform to the revised Association of American Railroads’ design requirements adopted as a result of Safety Recommendation R-12-9. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-007 Y
R-14-002 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Develop a program to audit response plans for rail carriers of petroleum products to ensure that adequate provisions are in place to respond to and remove a worst-case discharge to the maximum extent practicable and to mitigate or prevent a substantial threat of a worst-case discharge.

https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-002  
R-14-005 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Revise the spill response planning thresholds contained in Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 130 to require comprehensive response plans to effectively provide for the carriers’ ability to respond to worst-case discharges resulting from accidents involving unit trains or blocks of tank cars transporting oil and petroleum products. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-005 Y
R-14-006 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Require shippers to sufficiently test and document the physical and chemical characteristics of hazardous materials to ensure the proper classification, packaging, and record-keeping of products offered in transportation. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-006 Y
R-14-016 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Collaborate with the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration and the American Short Line and Regional Railroad Association to develop a risk assessment tool that addresses the known limitations and shortcomings of the Rail Corridor Risk Management Safety software tool. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-016  
R-14-017 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Collaborate with the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration and the American Short Line and Regional Railroad Association to conduct audits of short line and regional railroads to ensure that proper route risk assessments that identify safety and security vulnerabilities are being performed and are incorporated into a safety management system program. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-14-017  
R-15-016 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Require an aggressive, intermediate progress milestone schedule, such as a 20 percent yearly completion metric over a 5-year implementation period, for the replacement or retrofitting of legacy DOT-111 and CPC-1232 tank cars to appropriate tank car performance standards, that includes equipping these tank cars with jackets, thermal protection, and appropriately sized pressure relief devices. (Urgent) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-016 Y
R-15-017 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Establish a publicly available reporting mechanism that reports, at least annually, progress on retrofitting and replacing tank cars subject to thermal protection system performance standards as recommended in safety recommendation R-15-16. (Urgent) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-017  
R-17-001 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Evaluate the risks posed to train crews by hazardous materials transported by rail, determine the adequate separation distance between hazardous materials cars and locomotives and occupied equipment that ensures the protection of train crews during both normal operations and accident conditions, and collaborate with the Federal Railroad Administration to revise [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations [Part] 174.85 to reflect those findings. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-17-001 Y
R-17-002 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Pending completion of the risk evaluation and action in accordance with its findings prescribed in Safety Recommendation R-17-01, withdraw regulatory interpretation 06-0278 that pertains to [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations [Part] 174.85 for positioning placarded rail cars in a train and require that all trains have a minimum of five nonplacarded cars between any locomotive or occupied equipment and the nearest placarded car transporting hazardous materials, regardless of train length and consist. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-17-002 Y
R-17-003 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Evaluate the risks posed to train crews by hazardous materials transported by rail, determine the adequate separation distance between hazardous materials cars and locomotives and occupied equipment that ensures the protection of train crews during both normal operations and accident conditions, and collaborate with the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration to revise [Title] 49 Code of Federal Regulations [Part] 174.85 to reflect those findings. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-17-003 Y
R-17-005 Open—Await Response TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Include the increased derailment risks associated with Class 1 track, the relationship between the weight of the railcars and the weight of the rail, and the potential failure of legacy US Department of Transportation-111 tank cars during derailments in the list of items for railroads to consider when determining the routes for high-hazard flammable trains or high-hazard flammable unit trains, as found in appendix D of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 172. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-17-005  
R-17-006 Open—Await Response TO THE PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Work together to develop specific guidance for railroads when using the list of items found in appendix D of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 172 in their risk assessments and apply the information gathered in those risk assessments when analyzing proposed routes for high-hazard flammable trains or high-hazard flammable unit trains. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-17-006  

Increase Implementation of Collision Avoidance Technologies

R​ec # Status Text  Link Requires or possibly requires regulatory action
H-13-030 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Develop minimum performance standards for connected vehicle technology for all highway vehicles. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-030  
H-13-031 Open—Initial Response Received TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Once minimum performance standards  for  connected  vehicle  technology  are developed, require this technology to be installed on all newly manufactured highway vehicles. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-13-031 Y
H-15-004 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Develop and apply testing protocols to assess the performance of forward collision avoidance systems in passenger vehicles at various velocities, including high speed and high velocity-differential. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-004  
H-15-005 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Complete, as soon as possible, the development and application of performance standards and protocols for the assessment of forward collision avoidance systems in commercial vehicles. (Safety Recommendation H-15-005 supersedes Safety Recommendation H-01-006) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-005  
H-15-006 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Expand the New Car Assessment Program 5-star rating system to include a scale that rates the performance of forward collision avoidance systems. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-006  
H-15-007 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION: Once the rating scale described in Safety Recommendation H-15-6 is established, include the ratings of forward collision avoidance systems on the vehicle Monroney labels. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-007  
H-15-008 Open—Acceptable Response TO PASSENGER VEHICLE, TRUCK-TRACTOR, MOTORCOACH, AND SINGLE-UNIT TRUCK MANUFACTURERS: Install forward collision avoidance systems that include, at a minimum, a forward collision warning component as standard equipment on all new vehicles. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-008  
H-15-009 Open—Acceptable Response TO PASSENGER VEHICLE, TRUCK-TRACTOR, MOTORCOACH, AND SINGLE-UNIT TRUCK MANUFACTURERS: Once the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration publishes performance standards for autonomous emergency braking, install systems meeting those standards on all new vehicles. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-15-009  
H-16-015 Open—Await Response TO GOOGLE, APPLE, GARMIN LTD., HERE, TOMTOM NV, INRIX, MAPQUEST, MICROSOFT CORPORATION, OMNITRACS LLC, OPENSTREETMAP US, SENSYS NETWORKS, STREETLIGHT DATA INC., TELETRAC, INC., AND UNITED PARCEL SERVICE OF AMERICA: Incorporate grade crossing-related geographic data, such as those currently being prepared by the Federal Railroad Administration, into your navigation applications to provide road users with additional safety cues and to reduce the likelihood of crashes at or near public or private grade crossings. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-16-015  
H-16-016 Open—Await Response TO THE NORTH AMERICAN CARTOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SOCIETY: Use existing newsletters and other routine forms of communication with your members to highlight the importance of creating navigation applications that incorporate grade crossing-related geographic data, such as those currently being prepared by the Federal Railroad Administration, to provide road users with additional safety cues and to reduce the likelihood of crashes at or near public or private grade crossings. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-16-016  
R-05-013 Open—Acceptable Response TO METRA (NORTHEAST ILLINOIS REGIONAL COMMUTER RAILROAD):

Install a positive train control system on your commuter train routes.
https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-05-013  
R-07-007 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAY: Develop and implement a positive train control system that includes collision avoidance capabilities on main line tracks, establishing priority requirements for high-risk corridors, such as those where passenger trains operate. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-07-007  
R-09-007 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Advise all rail transit operators that have train control systems capable of monitoring train movements to determine whether their systems have adequate safety redundancy if losses in train detection occur. If a system is susceptible to single point failures, urge and verify that corrective action is taken to add redundancy by evaluating track occupancy data on a real-time basis to automatically generate alerts and speed restrictions to prevent train collisions.  (Urgent) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-09-007  
R-09-014 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY: Develop and implement a positive train control system for all of your rail lines. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=H-09-014  
R-10-023 Open—Acceptable Response TO ALSTOM SIGNALING, INC.: Develop and implement periodic inspection and maintenance guidelines for use by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority and other rail transit operators and railroads equipped with General Railway Signal Company audio frequency track circuit modules and assist them in identifying and removing from service all modules that exhibit pulse-type parasitic oscillation in order to ensure the vitality and integrity of the automatic train control system. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-10-023  
R-12-020 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require the use of positive train control technologies that will detect the rear of trains and prevent rear-end collisions. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-020 Y
R-12-027 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION: Require railroads to install, along main lines in nonsignaled territory not equipped with positive train control, appropriate technology that warns approaching trains of incorrectly lined main track switches sufficiently in advance to permit stopping. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-12-027 Y
R-13-009 Open—Unacceptable Response TO THE CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAY COMPANY: Discontinue the use of after-arrival track authorities in nonsignaled territory not equipped with positive train control. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-009  
R-13-016 Open—Unacceptable Response TO CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY LIMITED, KANSAS CITY SOUTHERN RAILWAY COMPANY, NORFOLK SOUTHERN RAILROAD, AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD: Discontinue the use of after-arrival track authorities for train movements in nonsignaled territory not equipped with a positive train control system. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-016  
R-13-027 Open—Await Response TO ALL RAILROADS SUBJECT TO THE POSITIVE TRAIN CONTROL PROVISIONS OF THE RAIL SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2008: Provide positive train control implementation update reports to the Federal Railroad Administration every 6 months until positive train control implementation is complete. The update reports should consist of two sections: components and training. The components section should include a description of the positive train control component to be implemented, the number of components, the number of components completed on the report date, the number of components that remain to be completed, the overall completion percentage, and the estimated completion date. Components are defined as locomotives, wayside units, switches, base station radios, wayside radios, locomotive radios, and any new and novel  technologies that are part of a positive train control system. The training section shall include the number of safety-related employees and equivalent railroad carrier contractors and  subcontractors that need to be trained, by class and craft; minimum training standards for those employees and contractors, meaning the knowledge of and ability to comply with federal railroad safety laws and regulations and carrier rules and procedures to implement positive train control;  the percentage of employees  who  have completed  training;  the percentage of employees who remain to be trained; and the estimated date that training will be completed. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-027  
R-13-039 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Issue a directive to all transit properties requiring redundant protection for roadway workers, such as positive train control, secondary warning devices, or shunting. (Urgent) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-13-039  
R-15-022 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION: Require rail transit agencies to implement transmission-based train control systems that prevent train collisions. (Supersedes Safety Recommendation R-09-008) https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-022 Y
R-15-024 Open—Acceptable Response TO THE CHICAGO TRANSIT AUTHORITY: Install a transmission-based train control system on all passenger train routes. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-15-024  
R-97-026 Open—Acceptable Response TO CSX TRANSPORTATION INC.:  Develop and install a positive train separation control system on track segments that have commuter and intercity passenger trains. https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/_layouts/ntsb.recsearch/Recommendation.aspx?Rec=R-97-026  
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